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Dragonchain Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off Public Proposal

Dragonchain Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off Public Proposal

Dragonchain Public Proposal TL;DR:

Dragonchain has demonstrated twice Reddit’s entire total daily volume (votes, comments, and posts per Reddit 2019 Year in Review) in a 24-hour demo on an operational network. Every single transaction on Dragonchain is decentralized immediately through 5 levels of Dragon Net, and then secured with combined proof on Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and Binance Chain, via Interchain. At the time, in January 2020, the entire cost of the demo was approximately $25K on a single system (transaction fees locked at $0.0001/txn). With current fees (lowest fee $0.0000025/txn), this would cost as little as $625.
Watch Joe walk through the entire proposal and answer questions on YouTube.
This proposal is also available on the Dragonchain blog.

Hello Reddit and Ethereum community!

I’m Joe Roets, Founder & CEO of Dragonchain. When the team and I first heard about The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off we were intrigued. We believe we have the solutions Reddit seeks for its community points system and we have them at scale.
For your consideration, we have submitted our proposal below. The team at Dragonchain and I welcome and look forward to your technical questions, philosophical feedback, and fair criticism, to build a scaling solution for Reddit that will empower its users. Because our architecture is unlike other blockchain platforms out there today, we expect to receive many questions while people try to grasp our project. I will answer all questions here in this thread on Reddit, and I've answered some questions in the stream on YouTube.
We have seen good discussions so far in the competition. We hope that Reddit’s scaling solution will emerge from The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off and that Reddit will have great success with the implementation.

Executive summary

Dragonchain is a robust open source hybrid blockchain platform that has proven to withstand the passing of time since our inception in 2014. We have continued to evolve to harness the scalability of private nodes, yet take full advantage of the security of public decentralized networks, like Ethereum. We have a live, operational, and fully functional Interchain network integrating Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and ~700 independent Dragonchain nodes. Every transaction is secured to Ethereum, Bitcoin, and Ethereum Classic. Transactions are immediately usable on chain, and the first decentralization is seen within 20 seconds on Dragon Net. Security increases further to public networks ETH, BTC, and ETC within 10 minutes to 2 hours. Smart contracts can be written in any executable language, offering full freedom to existing developers. We invite any developer to watch the demo, play with our SDK’s, review open source code, and to help us move forward. Dragonchain specializes in scalable loyalty & rewards solutions and has built a decentralized social network on chain, with very affordable transaction costs. This experience can be combined with the insights Reddit and the Ethereum community have gained in the past couple of months to roll out the solution at a rapid pace.

Response and PoC

In The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off post, Reddit has asked for a series of demonstrations, requirements, and other considerations. In this section, we will attempt to answer all of these requests.

Live Demo

A live proof of concept showing hundreds of thousands of transactions
On Jan 7, 2020, Dragonchain hosted a 24-hour live demonstration during which a quarter of a billion (250 million+) transactions executed fully on an operational network. Every single transaction on Dragonchain is decentralized immediately through 5 levels of Dragon Net, and then secured with combined proof on Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and Binance Chain, via Interchain. This means that every single transaction is secured by, and traceable to these networks. An attack on this system would require a simultaneous attack on all of the Interchained networks.
24 hours in 4 minutes (YouTube):
24 hours in 4 minutes
The demonstration was of a single business system, and any user is able to scale this further, by running multiple systems simultaneously. Our goals for the event were to demonstrate a consistent capacity greater than that of Visa over an extended time period.
Tooling to reproduce our demo is available here:
https://github.com/dragonchain/spirit-bomb

Source Code

Source code (for on & off-chain components as well tooling used for the PoC). The source code does not have to be shared publicly, but if Reddit decides to use a particular solution it will need to be shared with Reddit at some point.

Scaling

How it works & scales

Architectural Scaling

Dragonchain’s architecture attacks the scalability issue from multiple angles. Dragonchain is a hybrid blockchain platform, wherein every transaction is protected on a business node to the requirements of that business or purpose. A business node may be held completely private or may be exposed or replicated to any level of exposure desired.
Every node has its own blockchain and is independently scalable. Dragonchain established Context Based Verification as its consensus model. Every transaction is immediately usable on a trust basis, and in time is provable to an increasing level of decentralized consensus. A transaction will have a level of decentralization to independently owned and deployed Dragonchain nodes (~700 nodes) within seconds, and full decentralization to BTC and ETH within minutes or hours. Level 5 nodes (Interchain nodes) function to secure all transactions to public or otherwise external chains such as Bitcoin and Ethereum. These nodes scale the system by aggregating multiple blocks into a single Interchain transaction on a cadence. This timing is configurable based upon average fees for each respective chain. For detailed information about Dragonchain’s architecture, and Context Based Verification, please refer to the Dragonchain Architecture Document.

Economic Scaling

An interesting feature of Dragonchain’s network consensus is its economics and scarcity model. Since Dragon Net nodes (L2-L4) are independent staking nodes, deployment to cloud platforms would allow any of these nodes to scale to take on a large percentage of the verification work. This is great for scalability, but not good for the economy, because there is no scarcity, and pricing would develop a downward spiral and result in fewer verification nodes. For this reason, Dragonchain uses TIME as scarcity.
TIME is calculated as the number of Dragons held, multiplied by the number of days held. TIME influences the user’s access to features within the Dragonchain ecosystem. It takes into account both the Dragon balance and length of time each Dragon is held. TIME is staked by users against every verification node and dictates how much of the transaction fees are awarded to each participating node for every block.
TIME also dictates the transaction fee itself for the business node. TIME is staked against a business node to set a deterministic transaction fee level (see transaction fee table below in Cost section). This is very interesting in a discussion about scaling because it guarantees independence for business implementation. No matter how much traffic appears on the entire network, a business is guaranteed to not see an increased transaction fee rate.

Scaled Deployment

Dragonchain uses Docker and Kubernetes to allow the use of best practices traditional system scaling. Dragonchain offers managed nodes with an easy to use web based console interface. The user may also deploy a Dragonchain node within their own datacenter or favorite cloud platform. Users have deployed Dragonchain nodes on-prem on Amazon AWS, Google Cloud, MS Azure, and other hosting platforms around the world. Any executable code, anything you can write, can be written into a smart contract. This flexibility is what allows us to say that developers with no blockchain experience can use any code language to access the benefits of blockchain. Customers have used NodeJS, Python, Java, and even BASH shell script to write smart contracts on Dragonchain.
With Docker containers, we achieve better separation of concerns, faster deployment, higher reliability, and lower response times.
We chose Kubernetes for its self-healing features, ability to run multiple services on one server, and its large and thriving development community. It is resilient, scalable, and automated. OpenFaaS allows us to package smart contracts as Docker images for easy deployment.
Contract deployment time is now bounded only by the size of the Docker image being deployed but remains fast even for reasonably large images. We also take advantage of Docker’s flexibility and its ability to support any language that can run on x86 architecture. Any image, public or private, can be run as a smart contract using Dragonchain.

Flexibility in Scaling

Dragonchain’s architecture considers interoperability and integration as key features. From inception, we had a goal to increase adoption via integration with real business use cases and traditional systems.
We envision the ability for Reddit, in the future, to be able to integrate alternate content storage platforms or other financial services along with the token.
  • LBRY - To allow users to deploy content natively to LBRY
  • MakerDAO to allow users to lend small amounts backed by their Reddit community points.
  • STORJ/SIA to allow decentralized on chain storage of portions of content. These integrations or any other are relatively easy to integrate on Dragonchain with an Interchain implementation.

Cost

Cost estimates (on-chain and off-chain) For the purpose of this proposal, we assume that all transactions are on chain (posts, replies, and votes).
On the Dragonchain network, transaction costs are deterministic/predictable. By staking TIME on the business node (as described above) Reddit can reduce transaction costs to as low as $0.0000025 per transaction.
Dragonchain Fees Table

Getting Started

How to run it
Building on Dragonchain is simple and requires no blockchain experience. Spin up a business node (L1) in our managed environment (AWS), run it in your own cloud environment, or on-prem in your own datacenter. Clear documentation will walk you through the steps of spinning up your first Dragonchain Level 1 Business node.
Getting started is easy...
  1. Download Dragonchain’s dctl
  2. Input three commands into a terminal
  3. Build an image
  4. Run it
More information can be found in our Get started documents.

Architecture
Dragonchain is an open source hybrid platform. Through Dragon Net, each chain combines the power of a public blockchain (like Ethereum) with the privacy of a private blockchain.
Dragonchain organizes its network into five separate levels. A Level 1, or business node, is a totally private blockchain only accessible through the use of public/private keypairs. All business logic, including smart contracts, can be executed on this node directly and added to the chain.
After creating a block, the Level 1 business node broadcasts a version stripped of sensitive private data to Dragon Net. Three Level 2 Validating nodes validate the transaction based on guidelines determined from the business. A Level 3 Diversity node checks that the level 2 nodes are from a diverse array of locations. A Level 4 Notary node, hosted by a KYC partner, then signs the validation record received from the Level 3 node. The transaction hash is ledgered to the Level 5 public chain to take advantage of the hash power of massive public networks.
Dragon Net can be thought of as a “blockchain of blockchains”, where every level is a complete private blockchain. Because an L1 can send to multiple nodes on a single level, proof of existence is distributed among many places in the network. Eventually, proof of existence reaches level 5 and is published on a public network.

API Documentation

APIs (on chain & off)

SDK Source

Nobody’s Perfect

Known issues or tradeoffs
  • Dragonchain is open source and even though the platform is easy enough for developers to code in any language they are comfortable with, we do not have so large a developer community as Ethereum. We would like to see the Ethereum developer community (and any other communities) become familiar with our SDK’s, our solutions, and our platform, to unlock the full potential of our Ethereum Interchain. Long ago we decided to prioritize both Bitcoin and Ethereum Interchains. We envision an ecosystem that encompasses different projects to give developers the ability to take full advantage of all the opportunities blockchain offers to create decentralized solutions not only for Reddit but for all of our current platforms and systems. We believe that together we will take the adoption of blockchain further. We currently have additional Interchain with Ethereum Classic. We look forward to Interchain with other blockchains in the future. We invite all blockchains projects who believe in decentralization and security to Interchain with Dragonchain.
  • While we only have 700 nodes compared to 8,000 Ethereum and 10,000 Bitcoin nodes. We harness those 18,000 nodes to scale to extremely high levels of security. See Dragonchain metrics.
  • Some may consider the centralization of Dragonchain’s business nodes as an issue at first glance, however, the model is by design to protect business data. We do not consider this a drawback as these nodes can make any, none, or all data public. Depending upon the implementation, every subreddit could have control of its own business node, for potential business and enterprise offerings, bringing new alternative revenue streams to Reddit.

Costs and resources

Summary of cost & resource information for both on-chain & off-chain components used in the PoC, as well as cost & resource estimates for further scaling. If your PoC is not on mainnet, make note of any mainnet caveats (such as congestion issues).
Every transaction on the PoC system had a transaction fee of $0.0001 (one-hundredth of a cent USD). At 256MM transactions, the demo cost $25,600. With current operational fees, the same demonstration would cost $640 USD.
For the demonstration, to achieve throughput to mimic a worldwide payments network, we modeled several clients in AWS and 4-5 business nodes to handle the traffic. The business nodes were tuned to handle higher throughput by adjusting memory and machine footprint on AWS. This flexibility is valuable to implementing a system such as envisioned by Reddit. Given that Reddit’s daily traffic (posts, replies, and votes) is less than half that of our demo, we would expect that the entire Reddit system could be handled on 2-5 business nodes using right-sized containers on AWS or similar environments.
Verification was accomplished on the operational Dragon Net network with over 700 independently owned verification nodes running around the world at no cost to the business other than paid transaction fees.

Requirements

Scaling

This PoC should scale to the numbers below with minimal costs (both on & off-chain). There should also be a clear path to supporting hundreds of millions of users.
Over a 5 day period, your scaling PoC should be able to handle:
*100,000 point claims (minting & distributing points) *25,000 subscriptions *75,000 one-off points burning *100,000 transfers
During Dragonchain’s 24 hour demo, the above required numbers were reached within the first few minutes.
Reddit’s total activity is 9000% more than Ethereum’s total transaction level. Even if you do not include votes, it is still 700% more than Ethereum’s current volume. Dragonchain has demonstrated that it can handle 250 million transactions a day, and it’s architecture allows for multiple systems to work at that level simultaneously. In our PoC, we demonstrate double the full capacity of Reddit, and every transaction was proven all the way to Bitcoin and Ethereum.
Reddit Scaling on Ethereum

Decentralization

Solutions should not depend on any single third-party provider. We prefer solutions that do not depend on specific entities such as Reddit or another provider, and solutions with no single point of control or failure in off-chain components but recognize there are numerous trade-offs to consider
Dragonchain’s architecture calls for a hybrid approach. Private business nodes hold the sensitive data while the validation and verification of transactions for the business are decentralized within seconds and secured to public blockchains within 10 minutes to 2 hours. Nodes could potentially be controlled by owners of individual subreddits for more organic decentralization.
  • Billing is currently centralized - there is a path to federation and decentralization of a scaled billing solution.
  • Operational multi-cloud
  • Operational on-premises capabilities
  • Operational deployment to any datacenter
  • Over 700 independent Community Verification Nodes with proof of ownership
  • Operational Interchain (Interoperable to Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Ethereum Classic, open to more)

Usability Scaling solutions should have a simple end user experience.

Users shouldn't have to maintain any extra state/proofs, regularly monitor activity, keep track of extra keys, or sign anything other than their normal transactions
Dragonchain and its customers have demonstrated extraordinary usability as a feature in many applications, where users do not need to know that the system is backed by a live blockchain. Lyceum is one of these examples, where the progress of academy courses is being tracked, and successful completion of courses is rewarded with certificates on chain. Our @Save_The_Tweet bot is popular on Twitter. When used with one of the following hashtags - #please, #blockchain, #ThankYou, or #eternalize the tweet is saved through Eternal to multiple blockchains. A proof report is available for future reference. Other examples in use are DEN, our decentralized social media platform, and our console, where users can track their node rewards, view their TIME, and operate a business node.
Examples:

Transactions complete in a reasonable amount of time (seconds or minutes, not hours or days)
All transactions are immediately usable on chain by the system. A transaction begins the path to decentralization at the conclusion of a 5-second block when it gets distributed across 5 separate community run nodes. Full decentralization occurs within 10 minutes to 2 hours depending on which interchain (Bitcoin, Ethereum, or Ethereum Classic) the transaction hits first. Within approximately 2 hours, the combined hash power of all interchained blockchains secures the transaction.

Free to use for end users (no gas fees, or fixed/minimal fees that Reddit can pay on their behalf)
With transaction pricing as low as $0.0000025 per transaction, it may be considered reasonable for Reddit to cover transaction fees for users.
All of Reddit's Transactions on Blockchain (month)
Community points can be earned by users and distributed directly to their Reddit account in batch (as per Reddit minting plan), and allow users to withdraw rewards to their Ethereum wallet whenever they wish. Withdrawal fees can be paid by either user or Reddit. This model has been operating inside the Dragonchain system since 2018, and many security and financial compliance features can be optionally added. We feel that this capability greatly enhances user experience because it is seamless to a regular user without cryptocurrency experience, yet flexible to a tech savvy user. With regard to currency or token transactions, these would occur on the Reddit network, verified to BTC and ETH. These transactions would incur the $0.0000025 transaction fee. To estimate this fee we use the monthly active Reddit users statista with a 60% adoption rate and an estimated 10 transactions per month average resulting in an approximate $720 cost across the system. Reddit could feasibly incur all associated internal network charges (mining/minting, transfer, burn) as these are very low and controllable fees.
Reddit Internal Token Transaction Fees

Reddit Ethereum Token Transaction Fees
When we consider further the Ethereum fees that might be incurred, we have a few choices for a solution.
  1. Offload all Ethereum transaction fees (user withdrawals) to interested users as they wish to withdraw tokens for external use or sale.
  2. Cover Ethereum transaction fees by aggregating them on a timed schedule. Users would request withdrawal (from Reddit or individual subreddits), and they would be transacted on the Ethereum network every hour (or some other schedule).
  3. In a combination of the above, customers could cover aggregated fees.
  4. Integrate with alternate Ethereum roll up solutions or other proposals to aggregate minting and distribution transactions onto Ethereum.

Bonus Points

Users should be able to view their balances & transactions via a blockchain explorer-style interface
From interfaces for users who have no knowledge of blockchain technology to users who are well versed in blockchain terms such as those present in a typical block explorer, a system powered by Dragonchain has flexibility on how to provide balances and transaction data to users. Transactions can be made viewable in an Eternal Proof Report, which displays raw data along with TIME staking information and traceability all the way to Bitcoin, Ethereum, and every other Interchained network. The report shows fields such as transaction ID, timestamp, block ID, multiple verifications, and Interchain proof. See example here.
Node payouts within the Dragonchain console are listed in chronological order and can be further seen in either Dragons or USD. See example here.
In our social media platform, Dragon Den, users can see, in real-time, their NRG and MTR balances. See example here.
A new influencer app powered by Dragonchain, Raiinmaker, breaks down data into a user friendly interface that shows coin portfolio, redeemed rewards, and social scores per campaign. See example here.

Exiting is fast & simple
Withdrawing funds on Dragonchain’s console requires three clicks, however, withdrawal scenarios with more enhanced security features per Reddit’s discretion are obtainable.

Interoperability Compatibility with third party apps (wallets/contracts/etc) is necessary.
Proven interoperability at scale that surpasses the required specifications. Our entire platform consists of interoperable blockchains connected to each other and traditional systems. APIs are well documented. Third party permissions are possible with a simple smart contract without the end user being aware. No need to learn any specialized proprietary language. Any code base (not subsets) is usable within a Docker container. Interoperable with any blockchain or traditional APIs. We’ve witnessed relatively complex systems built by engineers with no blockchain or cryptocurrency experience. We’ve also demonstrated the creation of smart contracts within minutes built with BASH shell and Node.js. Please see our source code and API documentation.

Scaling solutions should be extensible and allow third parties to build on top of it Open source and extensible
APIs should be well documented and stable

Documentation should be clear and complete
For full documentation, explore our docs, SDK’s, Github repo’s, architecture documents, original Disney documentation, and other links or resources provided in this proposal.

Third-party permissionless integrations should be possible & straightforward Smart contracts are Docker based, can be written in any language, use full language (not subsets), and can therefore be integrated with any system including traditional system APIs. Simple is better. Learning an uncommon or proprietary language should not be necessary.
Advanced knowledge of mathematics, cryptography, or L2 scaling should not be required. Compatibility with common utilities & toolchains is expected.
Dragonchain business nodes and smart contracts leverage Docker to allow the use of literally any language or executable code. No proprietary language is necessary. We’ve witnessed relatively complex systems built by engineers with no blockchain or cryptocurrency experience. We’ve also demonstrated the creation of smart contracts within minutes built with BASH shell and Node.js.

Bonus

Bonus Points: Show us how it works. Do you have an idea for a cool new use case for Community Points? Build it!

TIME

Community points could be awarded to Reddit users based upon TIME too, whereas the longer someone is part of a subreddit, the more community points someone naturally gained, even if not actively commenting or sharing new posts. A daily login could be required for these community points to be credited. This grants awards to readers too and incentivizes readers to create an account on Reddit if they browse the website often. This concept could also be leveraged to provide some level of reputation based upon duration and consistency of contribution to a community subreddit.

Dragon Den

Dragonchain has already built a social media platform that harnesses community involvement. Dragon Den is a decentralized community built on the Dragonchain blockchain platform. Dragon Den is Dragonchain’s answer to fake news, trolling, and censorship. It incentivizes the creation and evaluation of quality content within communities. It could be described as being a shareholder of a subreddit or Reddit in its entirety. The more your subreddit is thriving, the more rewarding it will be. Den is currently in a public beta and in active development, though the real token economy is not live yet. There are different tokens for various purposes. Two tokens are Lair Ownership Rights (LOR) and Lair Ownership Tokens (LOT). LOT is a non-fungible token for ownership of a specific Lair. LOT will only be created and converted from LOR.
Energy (NRG) and Matter (MTR) work jointly. Your MTR determines how much NRG you receive in a 24-hour period. Providing quality content, or evaluating content will earn MTR.

Security. Users have full ownership & control of their points.
All community points awarded based upon any type of activity or gift, are secured and provable to all Interchain networks (currently BTC, ETH, ETC). Users are free to spend and withdraw their points as they please, depending on the features Reddit wants to bring into production.

Balances and transactions cannot be forged, manipulated, or blocked by Reddit or anyone else
Users can withdraw their balance to their ERC20 wallet, directly through Reddit. Reddit can cover the fees on their behalf, or the user covers this with a portion of their balance.

Users should own their points and be able to get on-chain ERC20 tokens without permission from anyone else
Through our console users can withdraw their ERC20 rewards. This can be achieved on Reddit too. Here is a walkthrough of our console, though this does not show the quick withdrawal functionality, a user can withdraw at any time. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aNlTMxnfVHw

Points should be recoverable to on-chain ERC20 tokens even if all third-parties involved go offline
If necessary, signed transactions from the Reddit system (e.g. Reddit + Subreddit) can be sent to the Ethereum smart contract for minting.

A public, third-party review attesting to the soundness of the design should be available
To our knowledge, at least two large corporations, including a top 3 accounting firm, have conducted positive reviews. These reviews have never been made public, as Dragonchain did not pay or contract for these studies to be released.

Bonus points
Public, third-party implementation review available or in progress
See above

Compatibility with HSMs & hardware wallets
For the purpose of this proposal, all tokenization would be on the Ethereum network using standard token contracts and as such, would be able to leverage all hardware wallet and Ethereum ecosystem services.

Other Considerations

Minting/distributing tokens is not performed by Reddit directly
This operation can be automated by smart contract on Ethereum. Subreddits can if desired have a role to play.

One off point burning, as well as recurring, non-interactive point burning (for subreddit memberships) should be possible and scalable
This is possible and scalable with interaction between Dragonchain Reddit system and Ethereum token contract(s).

Fully open-source solutions are strongly preferred
Dragonchain is fully open source (see section on Disney release after conclusion).

Conclusion

Whether it is today, or in the future, we would like to work together to bring secure flexibility to the highest standards. It is our hope to be considered by Ethereum, Reddit, and other integrative solutions so we may further discuss the possibilities of implementation. In our public demonstration, 256 million transactions were handled in our operational network on chain in 24 hours, for the low cost of $25K, which if run today would cost $625. Dragonchain’s interoperable foundation provides the atmosphere necessary to implement a frictionless community points system. Thank you for your consideration of our proposal. We look forward to working with the community to make something great!

Disney Releases Blockchain Platform as Open Source

The team at Disney created the Disney Private Blockchain Platform. The system was a hybrid interoperable blockchain platform for ledgering and smart contract development geared toward solving problems with blockchain adoption and usability. All objective evaluation would consider the team’s output a success. We released a list of use cases that we explored in some capacity at Disney, and our input on blockchain standardization as part of our participation in the W3C Blockchain Community Group.
https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-blockchain/2016May/0052.html

Open Source

In 2016, Roets proposed to release the platform as open source to spread the technology outside of Disney, as others within the W3C group were interested in the solutions that had been created inside of Disney.
Following a long process, step by step, the team met requirements for release. Among the requirements, the team had to:
  • Obtain VP support and approval for the release
  • Verify ownership of the software to be released
  • Verify that no proprietary content would be released
  • Convince the organization that there was a value to the open source community
  • Convince the organization that there was a value to Disney
  • Offer the plan for ongoing maintenance of the project outside of Disney
  • Itemize competing projects
  • Verify no conflict of interest
  • Preferred license
  • Change the project name to not use the name Disney, any Disney character, or any other associated IP - proposed Dragonchain - approved
  • Obtain legal approval
  • Approval from corporate, parks, and other business units
  • Approval from multiple Disney patent groups Copyright holder defined by Disney (Disney Connected and Advanced Technologies)
  • Trademark searches conducted for the selected name Dragonchain
  • Obtain IT security approval
  • Manual review of OSS components conducted
  • OWASP Dependency and Vulnerability Check Conducted
  • Obtain technical (software) approval
  • Offer management, process, and financial plans for the maintenance of the project.
  • Meet list of items to be addressed before release
  • Remove all Disney project references and scripts
  • Create a public distribution list for email communications
  • Remove Roets’ direct and internal contact information
  • Create public Slack channel and move from Disney slack channels
  • Create proper labels for issue tracking
  • Rename internal private Github repository
  • Add informative description to Github page
  • Expand README.md with more specific information
  • Add information beyond current “Blockchains are Magic”
  • Add getting started sections and info on cloning/forking the project
  • Add installation details
  • Add uninstall process
  • Add unit, functional, and integration test information
  • Detail how to contribute and get involved
  • Describe the git workflow that the project will use
  • Move to public, non-Disney git repository (Github or Bitbucket)
  • Obtain Disney Open Source Committee approval for release
On top of meeting the above criteria, as part of the process, the maintainer of the project had to receive the codebase on their own personal email and create accounts for maintenance (e.g. Github) with non-Disney accounts. Given the fact that the project spanned multiple business units, Roets was individually responsible for its ongoing maintenance. Because of this, he proposed in the open source application to create a non-profit organization to hold the IP and maintain the project. This was approved by Disney.
The Disney Open Source Committee approved the application known as OSSRELEASE-10, and the code was released on October 2, 2016. Disney decided to not issue a press release.
Original OSSRELASE-10 document

Dragonchain Foundation

The Dragonchain Foundation was created on January 17, 2017. https://den.social/l/Dragonchain/24130078352e485d96d2125082151cf0/dragonchain-and-disney/
submitted by j0j0r0 to ethereum [link] [comments]

Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Edit: TL;DR added in the comments
 
Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analyzed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk-reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralized and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis of why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise, just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction
 
The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since the end of January 2019 with daily transaction rates growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralized and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. The maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realized early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralized, secure, and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in the amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralization. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue dissecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour, no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts, etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as: “A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronize cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next, he states that: "blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”. For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber, and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa, this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network, etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever-changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralized and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimization on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and the University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (66%) double-spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT, etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralization.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently, there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so-called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralized nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics, you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching its transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end-users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public. They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public-facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers. The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translate to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non-custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS; shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralized too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralized in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. The faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time-stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalized: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object-oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: * “all programs have two basic components, data – what the program knows – and behavior – what the program can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviors in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behavior are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.” *
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: OCaml is a general-purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognized by academics and won a so-called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise, it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts, it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa or Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue: In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships
 
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organizations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggests that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already take advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, Airbnb, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are built on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human-readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They don't just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data, it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community-run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non-custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiative (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggests in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real-time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding of what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures, Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
submitted by haveyouheardaboutit to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analysed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralised and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since end of January 2019 with daily transaction rate growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralised and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. Maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realised early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralised, secure and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralisation. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue disecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as:
“A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronise cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next he states that: >“blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”.* For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralised and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimisation on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (>66%) double spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralisation.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralised nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching their transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public.They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers.The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translates to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS & shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralised too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralised in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. Faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, R&D roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalised: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: > “all programmes have two basic components, data – what the programme knows – and behaviour – what the programme can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviours in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behaviour are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.”
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: > OCaml is a general purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognised by academics and won a so called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities safety is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa for Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue:
In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships  
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organisations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggest that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already taking advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, AirBnB, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are build on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”*
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They dont just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities) also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiatives (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggest in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures & Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
submitted by haveyouheardaboutit to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

The Cashaddr spec claims it can always detect six errored characters. This is incorrect, it cannot. Be careful with anything that claims to correct errors, this mistake makes such tools more dangerous.

Cashaddr is BCH's clone of BIP173.
It is modified to handle detecting additional errors at the expense of making addresses longer. Unfortunately, less care was apparently taken in the selection and validation of the parameters than BIP173. Particularly, the specification claims that "It ensures the detection of up to 6 errors in the address" but this property is not actually achieved for any supported address size.
I hadn't bothered to comment on this previously because handling 5 errors is plenty-- and any sequence of events likely to produce 6 would probably also be fairly likely to produce more in any case. As it was, this mistake wasn't of practical consequence and is just sort of the thing you'd expect from hasty changes "turn it up to 11", but otherwise harmless.
I also think it's unlikely that parameters exist which achieve the claimed behaviour without making the addresses even longer yet-- which I really doubt would be a good trade-off.
However, recently people have posted software to automatically correct errors made in typed addresses. Correction interacts poorly with mistaken beliefs about the error detection ability of the format.
BIP173 specifically recommends against correcting errors because doing so destroys the error detection safety: "An unfortunate side effect of error correction is that it erodes error detection: correction changes invalid inputs into valid inputs, but if more than a few errors were made then the valid input may not be the correct input. Use of an incorrect but valid input can cause funds to be lost irrecoverably. Because of this, implementations SHOULD NOT implement correction beyond potentially suggesting to the user where in the string an error might be found, without suggesting the correction to make."
The cashaddr spec dutifully gives a confusing paraphrase of this warning: "BCH codes allows for error correction. However, it is strongly advised that error correction is not done in an automatic manner as it may cause funds to be lost irrecoverably if done incorrectly. It may however be used to hint a user at a possible error." This text eliminates the justification and instead is easily read as expressing the concern that the correcting software might be written incorrectly rather than the concern being a fundamental trade-off between correction and detection strength.
Essentially every corrected error removes two characters from the detection ability. So if the code actually guaranteed the detection of 6 errors it could correct three errors unambiguously (though if there were more errors it would be undetected and your funds would be destroyed), but cashaddr does not actually have that property though the spec claims it does. Similarly, if some software corrected only two errors it would still have two errors worth of detection remaining-- but it doesn't because the code cannot guarantee the detection of 6 errors.
I'm unsure how this mistake was made. Validating the error handling capacity of these codes is tricky and computationally expensive. If the search were implemented completely naively it would have to evaluate more than 252 candidate error patterns to check for up to 6 errors in length 42 for each candidate set of parameters that were evaluated. To create BIP173 we had to invent a multitude of novel algebraic optimizations to make the search tractable. Deadalnix claims, however, that our published software wasn't used to create cashaddr. I asked deadalnix for the software used to derive cashaddr, but I guess he lost interest in the discussion.
In any case, this flaw isn't a big deal unless you start correcting errors. I recommend taking BIP173's advice and limit any error 'correction' to just hinting to users characters they should double check.
Cheers,
submitted by nullc to btc [link] [comments]

Looking for frontend developers and artists for building CryptoPandas during the SLP hackathon!

We’re looking for experts for building CryptoPandas during the SLP hackathon.
CryptoPandas is basically an adaptation of CryptoKitties to the Bitcoin Cash blockchain, but with lower fees and an (arguably) cuter species.
CryptoPandas uses SLP NFT1 tokens to represent the genome of a panda. New pandas can be birthed by anyone who has a male and a female panda. Only panda tokens following the birthing specification will be considered valid, similar to how only SLP transactions have to follow the SLP rules, albeit invalid token transactions may exist on the blockchain.
For the user, the process looks as follows:
For the implementation during the hackathon, the following has to be implemented:
This would require the following experts: - A Script/CashScript developer (that could be me). - An SLP-savvy backend developer (could be me too). - A general backend developer who sets up the APIs for the frontend and does the panda validation. - An SLP-savvy frontend developer (assuming WebAssembly is an option, that would be pretty much the same as the above) for performing the birthing process. - A panda-savvy artist who’s able to create different layers for different traits of pandas (definitely not me). - A general frontend developer who’s good at creating a good UX (absolutely not me).
If any of the above seem attractive to you, please write me on telegram: @tobiassan
The technical process looks as follows (review SLP NFT1 specification for SLP details):
While this scheme is quite complex, it fully non-interactive, ie. the only thing the operators of CryptoPandas have to do is maintain a pool of anyone-can-spend parent tokens. Verification has the same properties as the Simple Ledger Protocol, meaning to verify a panda token, a DAG check has to be performed.
submitted by eyeofpython to btc [link] [comments]

Subreddit Stats: Monero top posts from 2019-01-07 to 2020-01-05 20:57 PDT

Period: 363.37 days
Submissions Comments
Total 1000 32255
Rate (per day) 2.75 88.32
Unique Redditors 413 4359
Combined Score 87276 146123

Top Submitters' Top Submissions

  1. 11193 points, 116 submissions: dEBRUYNE_1
    1. 'Monero in many respects is closer to what Bitcoin was intended to be than Bitcoin itself' - binaryFate (245 points, 61 comments)
    2. "It was a huge misstep that Satoshi’s original design has weak privacy. It set in stone an expectation that digital assets must have worse privacy than cash. Didn’t have to be this way." - Udi Wertheimer ‏ (215 points, 61 comments)
    3. 'Privacy should not be optional (and that’s why we made it a default).' - Firefox (214 points, 24 comments)
    4. Monero receives 'not a security' rating (best possible rating) by Crypto Rating Council (joint council created by Coinbase, Kraken, Circle/Poloniex, Bittrex, Paxos/itBit, Cumberland, Genesis and Grayscale) (214 points, 30 comments)
    5. GUI v0.14.1.0 'Boron Butterfly' (with Ledger Nano X and Trezor Model T support) released! (213 points, 243 comments)
    6. 'Apple CEO Tim Cook says privacy isn't a feature that should be built into products after the fact' (212 points, 39 comments)
    7. "you’ve been asking... we finally delivered! $XMR is live in [Exodus] Eden version 19.2.2" (202 points, 68 comments)
    8. The Bitcoin.com Exchange has listed Monero (190 points, 73 comments)
    9. Preliminary information thread regarding the scheduled protocol upgrade of November 30 (183 points, 141 comments)
    10. GUI v0.15.0.1 'Carbon Chamaeleon' released! (177 points, 278 comments)
  2. 3214 points, 41 submissions: SamsungGalaxyPlayer
    1. Some generous donor(s) topped off ALL of the proposals in funding required! (193 points, 38 comments)
    2. Tentative Monero 0.15 Release Schedule (162 points, 51 comments)
    3. Monero: Monero Adds Blockchain Pruning and Improves Transaction Efficiency (143 points, 23 comments)
    4. Logs from the 2.5 hr dev meeting on Monero's PoW (124 points, 124 comments)
    5. New logo for the Monero Community Workgroup YouTube channel, courtesy of u/anhdres! (119 points, 19 comments)
    6. Announcing the "Beware of Bitcoin" campaign for Mastering Monero (117 points, 98 comments)
    7. Preliminary support for Monero on BTCPayServer has been merged! (116 points, 19 comments)
    8. OpenBazaar dev call tomorrow discussing proof of concept for Monero integration (111 points, 21 comments)
    9. "Linking Anonymous Transactions via Remote Side-Channel Attacks" - Now-Fixed Network Analysis Attacks on Monero and Zcash (102 points, 50 comments)
    10. Monero added to Exodus mobile (100 points, 33 comments)
  3. 3157 points, 32 submissions: OsrsNeedsF2P
    1. Alright everybody pack it up. US Attorney General says encryption creates a security risk; if your wallet requires a password to unlock, you're doing acts that are used by terrorists, and it's time to stop. (317 points, 56 comments)
    2. What a shame Monero isn't included ¯_(ツ)_/¯ (254 points, 47 comments)
    3. Linus Tovalds believes processor vendors are approaching the end of Moore's Law, and optimization of code is going to be needed to increase performance (245 points, 61 comments)
    4. Fluffypony Appreciation Thread (199 points, 62 comments)
    5. IRS wants to subpoena Google, Apple & Microsoft to see if users have downloaded cryptocurrency related applications (190 points, 96 comments)
    6. Soon ™ (151 points, 55 comments)
    7. Privacy matters: Bitpay donations to Hong Kong Free Press not going through (141 points, 20 comments)
    8. IBM, MIT and Elliptic release world’s largest labeled dataset of bitcoin transactions to help identify "Bad Actors" (119 points, 22 comments)
    9. Celebrating 10 years of Tails (114 points, 5 comments)
    10. Former CTO of Purism, the developers of the Librem 5 Linux mobile phone, notes the PR momentum they got with GNOME, Matrix, and Monero (96 points, 12 comments)
  4. 2106 points, 29 submissions: ErCiccione
    1. Church Of Monero: Enough is enough - How the leader of the Church tried to fool the community to make look like the Church is organizing the Monero Konferenco and even adding his own Monero address on the flyer (166 points, 268 comments)
    2. [URGENT]Call for translators! - We have two days to submit as many translations as possible for the next release of the GUI wallet! We need your help! (123 points, 46 comments)
    3. Monero translators, we need you to make one final sprint! The code freeze is imminent. (112 points, 15 comments)
    4. 2 new projects joined the Monero Ecosystem! MoneroBox, a plug-and-play, zero-configuration Monero full node and Monero-Javascript, Monero wallet and daemon JavaScript API (107 points, 12 comments)
    5. PSA: We've posted an announcement regarding the potentially compromised CLI binaries on getmonero.org (101 points, 47 comments)
    6. New language for Monerujo: Esperanto! Will be available in next release (97 points, 6 comments)
    7. Monero Python - A comprehensive Python module for handling Monero cryptocurrency, has officially joined the Monero Ecosystem Project! (94 points, 12 comments)
    8. Getmonero.org is now available in German! (89 points, 16 comments)
    9. Getmonero.org updated: New user friendly download page, Welcome video in Brazilian Portuguese, 5 new merchants accepting Monero and more (76 points, 12 comments)
    10. My last proposal as coordinator of the Localization Workgroup has ended. A recap, some updates, plans for the future of the internationalization of Monero and a huge thanks (73 points, 22 comments)
  5. 1257 points, 14 submissions: xmrhaelan
    1. A response to the Reuters article about Monero (183 points, 28 comments)
    2. CoinDesk research shows Monero is #4 by Reddit post volume community metrics. Kudos to you all! (172 points, 57 comments)
    3. A response to Coinbase regarding their criticism of Monero’s approach to PoW security (171 points, 91 comments)
    4. Graphic idea for Boron Butterfly release, courtesy of Monero Outreach (170 points, 36 comments)
    5. PSA: Seeking Volunteer Reviewers for PoW RandomX (104 points, 55 comments)
    6. PSA: Mine Monero to Support the Network (77 points, 80 comments)
    7. Looking for ways to help, volunteer, or contribute to the Monero community? Look no further! (70 points, 20 comments)
    8. SWOT Analysis of Monero [draft] (59 points, 35 comments)
    9. Monero Konferenco Press Release (55 points, 9 comments)
    10. A Simplified Guide to Monero Wallets, from Monero Outreach (40 points, 9 comments)
  6. 1220 points, 9 submissions: geonic_
    1. Monero is second only to Bitcoin in terms of number of commits for the past 4 years! (269 points, 59 comments)
    2. Joe Weisenthal (Bloomberg): Until true anonymity (or near anonymity) is developed into Bitcoin, it's still incomplete, and not delivering on its promise. Without anonymity, there's no censorship resistance, and no store of value. (173 points, 38 comments)
    3. Nick Szabo puts Monero on an equal footing with Bitcoin: “deeply safe Bitcoin & Monero” (170 points, 41 comments)
    4. Chainalysis: Bitcoin is the most popular cryptocurrency accepted on dark markets, followed by Monero. Dark web spending to reach $1B this year. (150 points, 39 comments)
    5. BTC maximalist QOTD: “If you send me bitcoin, I would prefer if you used coinjoin first. I would prefer to not know the history of your sats. Don't put that liability on me. Thanks.” (142 points, 45 comments)
    6. Peter Todd wishes Bitcoin had perpetual inflation -- 2140 is much closer than you think (101 points, 89 comments)
    7. nopara73, creator of Wasabi Wallet: "Compared to privacy coins Wasabi is just a temporary hack. I think without Confidential Transactions, as the transaction fees grow, privacy will be priced out of Bitcoin's main chain." (95 points, 48 comments)
    8. Scott Stornetta, inventor of the first blockchain: “When I first read the Bitcoin white paper I thought [...] there’s no privacy at all here! What you’ve got is a completely traceable record of what’s going on.” @12:00 (68 points, 17 comments)
    9. Let's discuss: is Monero a privacy tool (i.e. Tor, CoinJoin, etc.) or a secure layer one protocol (https)? how aligned is it with Bitcoin ideologically (consider current vs original Bitcoin ideology)? is Monero's blockchain a temporary solution? (52 points, 27 comments)
  7. 1186 points, 12 submissions: hyc_symas
    1. RandomX Audit Status (148 points, 29 comments)
    2. RandomX Status Update (134 points, 82 comments)
    3. RandomX Audit Status - Final (130 points, 54 comments)
    4. RandomX Audit Status (116 points, 9 comments)
    5. RandomX Audit Status (110 points, 24 comments)
    6. RandomX testnet (99 points, 23 comments)
    7. Blockchain Growth stats (87 points, 26 comments)
    8. RandomX Auditor Selection (86 points, 47 comments)
    9. CCS: RandomX Audit now in Funding Required (78 points, 45 comments)
    10. RandomX Audit Funding Request (76 points, 14 comments)
  8. 1171 points, 13 submissions: Thunderosa
    1. Blend in the Crowd with Carbon Chamaeleon v0.15.0.0 (161 points, 25 comments)
    2. @monero Twitter banner (141 points, 25 comments)
    3. A little Christmas card for my favorite freaks. Happy Holidays! (136 points, 4 comments)
    4. Boron Butterfly ASCII (117 points, 23 comments)
    5. Monero Torch (111 points, 73 comments)
    6. Konferenco funding! (105 points, 19 comments)
    7. supportxmr-gui Update - Twice the features, half the size. All vanilla. (98 points, 15 comments)
    8. Happy 5th (70 points, 16 comments)
    9. Explore the expert speakers and important topics of Monero Konferenco 2019! (57 points, 11 comments)
    10. RandomX - Monero and Arweave to Validate New Proof-of-Work Algorithm (52 points, 12 comments)
  9. 1129 points, 14 submissions: pinkphloid
    1. [NEWS] CAKE WALLET for Monero has crossed 20,000 unique installs on iOS. (123 points, 69 comments)
    2. [PUBLIC BETA] Cake Wallet for Monero is now available on Android! (104 points, 48 comments)
    3. Going to the Monero Konferenco? Don’t miss MoneroTalk’s party Saturday night Casa De Monero! It’s THE party of the weekend! (99 points, 13 comments)
    4. [UPDATE] Cake Wallet version 3.1.7, now with Address book, Back-up to iCloud and other locations, and BCH is back in the exchange! (92 points, 70 comments)
    5. [UPDATE] Cake Wallet version 3.1.17 with Hidden balance mode plus other new useful features! (90 points, 16 comments)
    6. Cake Wallet is hiring! (88 points, 14 comments)
    7. If you like using Cake Wallet, please vote! Thank you 🙏🏼🙏🏼 (87 points, 20 comments)
    8. NYC Monero meetup featuring guest speaker Justin Ehrenhofer of XMR Community Work Group. - by Cake Wallet and Monero Talk (82 points, 10 comments)
    9. [UPDATE] Cake Wallet - Version 3.1.20 Black Forest Cake Edition (73 points, 23 comments)
    10. Cake Wallet (small news) - we have acquired the domain cakewallet.com! (67 points, 16 comments)
  10. 1054 points, 13 submissions: jman76358
    1. Monero receives A rating (194 points, 43 comments)
    2. Exodus Wallet now supports Monero (128 points, 38 comments)
    3. I tell a lot of people about Monero who don't know anything about crypto and they instantly get it. They ask me the same thing over and over, so why do people still use Bitcoin? (127 points, 119 comments)
    4. How trustyworthy is the Cake wallet for iOS? (80 points, 43 comments)
    5. Why don't other coin devs like talking about fungibility? They seem to shrug it off even though it's a necessary component to being a currency. (77 points, 85 comments)
    6. Any idea what's going on with the Official Monero Twitter page? (67 points, 33 comments)
    7. Should Quantum Resistance research for XMR be started soon? I would love to see what the great minds of the dev community could come up with ! (64 points, 55 comments)
    8. The End of Mainstream Privacy is Upon Us (62 points, 28 comments)
    9. Non-KYC exchanges coming to an end, even for small amounts. DEX with Monero as main coin when? (57 points, 18 comments)
    10. I find it funny that people think the gov doesn’t want people to use bitcoin, trust me , they’re estatic that people want to voluntarily be tracked and surveilled. (55 points, 45 comments)

Top Commenters

  1. dEBRUYNE_1 (9070 points, 1572 comments)
  2. OsrsNeedsF2P (5373 points, 757 comments)
  3. hyc_symas (2954 points, 332 comments)
  4. gingeropolous (2345 points, 313 comments)
  5. SamsungGalaxyPlayer (1897 points, 271 comments)
  6. rbrunner7 (1844 points, 299 comments)
  7. spirtdica (1835 points, 544 comments)
  8. pebx (1596 points, 318 comments)
  9. SarangNoether (1244 points, 115 comments)
  10. Same_As_It_Ever_Was (1234 points, 248 comments)

Top Submissions

  1. VLC accepts XMR for donations. Owner has turned down millions to keep it open source and ad-free. by tempMonero123 (468 points, 34 comments)
  2. Monero’s New Mascot by deepdarksea (433 points, 33 comments)
  3. Monero fashion spotted in the wild by Peterb88 (406 points, 34 comments)
  4. Found this in Basel, Switzerland. Then bought 0.968745 with no ID. by _0_1 (395 points, 120 comments)
  5. Bye-bye ASIC's! :-) by TheFuzzStone (357 points, 167 comments)
  6. Art by me by nikitko13 (328 points, 58 comments)
  7. Analysis: More than 85% of the current Monero Hashrate is ASICs and each machine is doing 128 kh/s by MoneroCrusher (324 points, 427 comments)
  8. Hi guys, long time no see 😁 this is what I do when not painting. Tools are printed on 3D printer. by cryptopaintings (322 points, 47 comments)
  9. Alright everybody pack it up. US Attorney General says encryption creates a security risk; if your wallet requires a password to unlock, you're doing acts that are used by terrorists, and it's time to stop. by OsrsNeedsF2P (317 points, 56 comments)
  10. India's ban could be Monero's boon by whotookmycrypto (313 points, 60 comments)

Top Comments

  1. 175 points: MoneroTipsBot's comment in Soon ™
  2. 139 points: MoneroCrusher's comment in Analysis: More than 85% of the current Monero Hashrate is ASICs and each machine is doing 128 kh/s
  3. 132 points: jonaemahina's comment in Kidnappers demand Monero ransom for wife of one of the Richest men in Norway.
  4. 116 points: leonardochaia's comment in Monero's Fluffypony reveals why he stepped down
  5. 111 points: katiecharm's comment in Tax Ramifications of Buying Coffee with Cryptocurrency
  6. 102 points: AlexAnarcho's comment in Kidnappers demand Monero ransom for wife of one of the Richest men in Norway.
  7. 100 points: fluffyponyza's comment in Fluffypony Appreciation Thread
  8. 96 points: Same_As_It_Ever_Was's comment in [Moderation Announcement] Religion related posts are now considered off-topic and will be removed
  9. 94 points: Flenst's comment in Security Warning: CLI binaries available on getmonero.org may have been compromised at some point during the last 24h.
  10. 93 points: moneroh's comment in Name Monero 0.14!
Generated with BBoe's Subreddit Stats
submitted by subreddit_stats to subreddit_stats [link] [comments]

How Nimiq is ahead of the curve - Browser Nodes and Instant Consensus

Hey everyone, I thought it would be nice to begin speaking a bit more about Nimiq in itself on this subreddit so I decided to write some short pieces about Nimiq (this is the first one).
Good to note that nothing said here is new and everything explained here is availaible in the whitepaper or the documentation. That said I know the majority of people in the Nimiq community are not "technical" (I'm among them) and do not necessarily grasp everything of what is happening under the hood.But that should not prevent us to try to understand how Nimiq works at a high level, why it is such a cool enterprise and ultimately appreciate more the efforts and elegance in the work of Team Nimiq, so here we go.
Let's begin with the common basis of every single cryptocurrency relying on a blockchain:When you decide to send some coins from one address to another on a blockchain (like Nimiq, Bitcoin or Ethereum), you create a transaction authenticated by your signature, as you probably know. Then this transaction is broadcasted to other nodes (which run a similar copy of the ledger each) and finally mined into a "block" which is propagated onto the network until the majority agrees on it. Past this point the transaction is said to be "validated" and will become part of the ledger hosted by all the nodes in the network.
Now to broadcast transactions you have traditionally two choices: either run your own node and spend hours/days downloading the entire blockchain (or at least a consequent portion of it) to reach consensus, which is notoriously slow and quite cumberstone OR trust on a third party node (a method called SPV - Simplified Payment Verification) to do it for you, that is fast but less secure and way less censorship resistant.
Nimiq innovates here by being the first blockchain offering the best of both world. How? Simply by letting you run a node directly in your browser which synchronizes in an instant.
To accomplish this feat the Nimiq relies on 3 main components:
  1. The use of WebRTC enabling peer-to-peer connections from your browser to the rest of the network, this is what enable you to be a peer in the Nimiq network.
  2. Nano and Pico consensus providing a way to securely synchronize and obtain the last state of the blockchain in mere seconds by downloading only few kb of datas, these datas act as a cryptographic proof (seeNiPoPoW).
  3. A javascript codebase (Javascript is as of today the "language of the web") allowing to "run" the node directly in-browser.
Now you may wonder "well that's sweet but what is the point?". Here is what these properties bring on the table:
That's it for browser nodes and instant consensus, hope some of you learnt something :).
submitted by --Talleyrand-- to Nimiq [link] [comments]

Nebulas Technical White Paper Review January 20, 2018

Nebulas Technical White Paper Review January 20, 2018

Whitepaper version: 1.0 September, 2017.

Built on ground-breaking innovation, Nebulas brings blockchain technology into the 3rd generation.
Nebulas offers two different white papers; while the first is a basic overview, the second is technical.
The technical white paper describes the specifics of the project, and with each part broken down into details, it is not only quite long, it is also considered one of the most technical white paper of any blockchain technology to date. Although detailed information provides transparency and answers questions, many people are finding it difficult to comprehend.
No doubt, most investors are looking for the next hot coin that will provide a good pay day! While I believe that Nebulas can provide just that, I also feel that it is always important to understand what you are investing in. If you take the time to read everything carefully, Nebulas’ technical white paper shows the entire system in its final glory!
Therefore, the comments below compile my analysis of the technical white paper (in combination with other reliable sources). I will also do my best to include the page where you can find these facts in the technical white paper. Therefore, I suggest that rather than taking my word for it, read it for yourself.
Based on pros and cons, let’s break down the primary elements of Nebulas:

Nebulas Rank (NR)

Nebulas Rank (NR) will be the first to integrate search engine capability into blockchain. In other words, Nebulas Rank is the protocol responsible for making search engine a viable element in the blockchain. Right off the bat, let’s address an important question, "What good is a ranking system inside a blockchain?"
Currently, there is no way to search the blockchain for meaningful data (other than simple transactions), and, therefore, it’s impossible to find dApps or locate smart contracts. If this doesn’t sound like a big deal, imagine trying to search the internet without google or some other search engine – it would be impossible!
Just as the first internet search engine evolved the internet into what it is today, the first blockchain search engine will inevitably evolve blockchain. Not only a stepping stone for the future of blockchain, we’re talking about a new foundation for blockchain technology.
By providing a blockchain search engine, the Nebulas Ranking system will allow users to locate quality dApps (decentralized apps) and smart contracts. For example, let’s say that you are looking for a dApp like CryptoKitties. No doubt, there could be dozens of similar apps. So, based on multiple data resources, such as blockchain activity, github activity, and even google search history, the ranking algorithm (NR) orders similar apps, and then lists them in a manner that the user can evaluate and select.

Now, can you see why Nebulas is being compared to google?

But, this is only the beginning…. Nebulas Rank is also interwoven into the Developer Incentive Protocol (DIP) and the Proof of Devotion (PoD) Consensus Algorithm. Without Nebulas Rank, these other two elements could not operate as the white paper states.
Based on the current white paper, let’s spotlight some potential negatives about the Nebulas Rank(NR) protocol. However, also keep in mind that these potential issues could be completely eliminated as the project develops (thanks to Nebulas Force – more on this later).

Now the potential negative:

However, while the white paper describes the search engine being centralized, it also says "In current stage..." Thereby indicating that Nebulas developers have a better solution in the long run. Perhaps a sidechain just for searching? The white paper also states that "the complete code for searching backend is available to the community and third-party developers can create their own searching services on this basis." Hopefully, this will keep the ranking honest.
Since the Nebulas blockchain is based on the Nebulas Rank (NR) system, now that we have highlighted the most important aspects of Nebulas Rank (NR), we can dive deeper into specific functions.

Proof of Devotion (PoD) Consensus Algorithm

In the cryptocurrency world, Proof of work (PoW) means mining. While damaging to the environment, few can argue that this is a terrible waste of natural resources. As an alternative, the cryptocurrency world also has Proof of Stake (PoS). Proof of Stake allows token/coin holders to stake (aka hold un-spendable tokens), and to be rewarded with more tokens when they create a new block. For example, if there are 100 people staking and there are 100 new blocks per hour, every stake will, on average, receive one block reward per hour.
While better for the environment, Proof of Stake creates an imbalance where major coin holders (aka whales) are rewarded with even more coins, and this allows "whales" to stake even more coins (this means that there could be a potential to monopolize the system).
Now, Nebulas brings us Proof of Devotion (PoD)[iii]. As far as I know, there is currently nothing like this in blockchain technology (nor ready to be released). Proof of Devotion essentially awards developers who make awesome things (such as dApps) on the Nebulas blockchain.
If you develop an dApp that’s performing well on the Nebulas network, you will have the option to be a validator (aka validate submitted transactions), and, in return, receive token rewards from the blockchain. To be a validator, you will need to stake (deposit) X amount of tokens. Then, multiple validators (per transaction) will have to agree on the result[iv], and, each will be rewarded 1.5x the amount staked.
The generation of new blocks[v] will be carried out by "highly important" accounts that Nebulas Rank (NR) calculates. As stated in the whitepaper, "PoD empowers the selected accounts to have the bookkeeping right with equal probability to participate in new block generation in order to prevent tilted probability that may bring about monopoly".
The bottom line... when it comes to Proof of Devotion, why use Ethereum to create a dApp when you can create the same dApp on Nebulas and make a profit? Needless to say, this is a huge incentive for developers to make dApps on the Nebulas network, and, consequently, it will increase the value of the network. Furthermore, since Nebulas will provide developer tools, it will be easier to create dApps.

Now the potential negative:

Because it inspires developers to create awesome dApps, and, at the same time, profit directly from blockchain, I personally love this idea! No longer will dApp creators require insane ICO’s nor will they need some other stream of revenue. However, participating in PoD does not stop developers from benefiting from other income streams. Truly groundbreaking!

Developer Incentive Protocol (DIP)

Not only can Proof of Devotion give incentive to developers, quality developers will also receive extra coins/tokens for their hard work. Based on Nebulas Rank(NR), Nebulas will use an algorithm for reward distribution[vii]. The rewards will be automatically distributed to the smart contract cash-out address every 7 days.
There is really nothing negative to add to this. It’s truly a powerful incentive!

Nebulas Force (NF)

Who needs hard forks? Nebulas Force will allow developers to introduce new features/protocols into the Nebulas blockchain without a fork. The Nebulas white paper calls it "Self-evolving blockchain technology" but I don’t believe this is quite correct. Rather than being self-evolving, it is actually community driven! Because this will build the blockchain community, in my opinion, this is even better!
With other blockchains for example, if a developer has an awesome idea for a dApp but it needs a new protocol that does not exist on any blockchain, the developer would have to centralize the dApp or chuck it altogether.
With Nebulas, new ideas can be developed, and if they provide positive contribution, the Nebulas community (Nebulas token holders) can vote on and approve changes to the network protocol. Once approved, Nebulas developers can add the new protocol into the Nebulas blockchain. Perhaps, further in the development, sub-chains will also support new protocols for full implementation.

Upgradable Smart Contracts

Revolutionary for blockchain, Nebulas Force will include upgradable smart contracts[viii]. Why is this important? Well, due to bugs in smart contracts, investors can lose funds in any blockchain network that uses smart contracts. Once submitted to the blockchain, nothing can be done to fix the bugs, and, as a result, tens of millions of dollars have already been lost.
Nebulas plans to overcome this problem through the implementation of upgradable smart contracts. In a nutshell, token holders will vote on proposed changes (to fix specific bugs), and when the overall vote is affirmative, bugs can be eliminated at any time. By saving investors millions, it will restore lost confidence!

Now the potential negative:

  • The Nebulas protocol is only modifiable by the Nebulas core developers. Although this is not really a negative, I would not call it "self-evolving". If you look at Bitcoin, there is a handful of developers responsible for source code, and, subsequently, the source code for all alt coins that use Bitcoin core in some capacity (such as LTC, BCC, BTG, DOGE, etc…)
  • The protocol updates will be applied via a hard coded signature into the genesis block[ix] and this means that there is a potential for network compromise.
  • Although there are some ethical issues with modifying smart contracts, overall, it is a great idea! Since token holders will have to vote on any changes, there could be an issue with whales (monopoly owners) controlling contracts.
Even with the negatives, this is a powerful feature.

The above includes Nebulas’ most innovative features, and although these features stand out, there is even more to Nebulas:

Anti-cheating algorithms[x]

To ensure fairness, the above protocols contain anti-cheating algorithms that are manipulation resistant, and, if someone is found trying to cheat, there are penalties.

Smart contracts almost anyone can write![xi]

Nebulas will support smart contracts written in Javascript, Python, Java and more! And this means that any coder can create a logical contract!

Full voting protocol[xii]

Since Nebulas includes a full voting protocol in the blockchain, you and I, as token holders, can help decide the direction of Nebulas. As an example, the coin "Decred[xiii]" also has a voting system; giving end-users a voice keeps them engaged.

Domain Name Service[xiv]

Although blockchain users are accustomed to "please send funds to: 0x488B2630CEdB5Bfd5e02c33A3653227170743357", it’s simply not logical. If you miss a letter, change a number, or simply enter an address incompletely, funds are sent into the abyss - forever. To correct this inherent problem, Nebulas will implement the use of "meaningful names." For instance, using a meaningful name, your Nebulas address could be "Rick_Sanchez.me." Users will have the opportunity to bid for requested names, and renew yearly - just like a web based domain name.

Lightning Network[xv]

As many of you probably already know, bitcoin can now use a Lightning Network. This will allow multiple small transactions to be signed without clogging up the blockchain and memory pool. It keeps an open ledger between two entities and can be closed at any time by either party, resulting in one transaction on the network instead of potentially dozens or hundreds.If the Bitcoin network started with the Lightning Network, it would currently be able to handle all transactions per second without any problems. Without the Lightening Network, Bitcoin can only handle 7~ transactions per second (and usually less). With the Lightening Network initially in place, the Nebulas network will be able to handle the required transactions and close the lightning ledgers when requested by users. It would also not cost $20.00++ to send $5.00 nor would it take an hour. I won’t get into the ludicrous prices of Bitcoin transactions fees and how we got here, but if you don’t know much about it, you should learn more. As an important feature of Nebulas, the Lightning Network will provide quick and cheap transactions.

High Strength Encryption

Nebulas uses SHA3-256 encryption. Although you won’t find this in the white paper, SHA3-256 is Highly Quantum Resistant[xvi] - research it yourself. Why is this so important? Well, as an inevitable evolution of quantum computing, previous generations of encryption will be rendered inadequate, and, consequently, susceptible to decryption of private keys. Basically, this means that once quantum computers are developed, you can lose your money in a non-quantum resistant blockchain. Since Quantum Resistance is a very important feature, many new coins (such as the QRL coin[xvii]) are being intentionally created for this purpose.

So, what role does the NAS token play in the network?

Directly from the white paper[xviii]; "The Nebulas network has its own built-in token, NAS. NAS plays two roles in the network. First, as the original money in the network, NAS provides asset liquidity among users, and functions as the incentive token for PoD bookkeepers and DIP. Second, NAS will be charged as the calculation fee for running smart contracts. The minimum unit of NAS is 10−18 NAS." If interested, the white paper goes into detail. If you question the purpose of NAS, simply ask yourself, "What role does ETHER play in the Ethereum network?" As of this writing, ETHER’s current price is $1098.00USD – and that’s not even it’s high. I believe that common sense indicates the potential value of the NAS coin!

Nebulas will have a maximum of 100,000,000 tokens

Many of the top 10 cryptocurrencies will distribute coins/tokens in the tens of billions, and, in fact, Ethereum will have an indefinite amount (albeit, they will taper off in time). However, when there are significantly less coins/tokens, the value of each increases. Treasure each NAS token!

A web-based playground for developer tools[xix]

To help developers create smart contracts easier and faster, Nebulas will offer developer tools. Nebulas will also support multiple IDE’s.
Although the list of features and functions goes on, this should give you an overview of what the Nebulas network can do, how it can evolve blockchain technology, and why it will be a very attractive option for future dApps. Having said all this, please be clear, it is not financial advice.
Also, keep in mind that the above statements are based on my analysis of the white paper (version: 1.0 September, 2017), but this is not to say that the developers don’t have a different perspective. With that being said, Nebulas staff and co-founder, Robin Zhong, actively responds to questions in their Slack channel. This leads us to a review of the Nebulas team.

The Nebulas Team

When looking at a new, and yet to be released, project, it’s not only important to understand the innovation, it’s also important to understand the team behind the innovation. Although not the largest team, the developers are highly educated with real blockchain experience. In fact, many have worked at Google, IBM, Alibaba, Alibaba financial, Airbnb, etc… Additionally, two Nebulas founders previously co-founded the NEO coin (formerly Antshares) which on January 20, 2018 trades at $140.00 (not even its high) per coin/token.
No doubt, the team is influential in past, current and future blockchain innovation. In fact, playing a huge part in bringing blockchain to China, Hitters Xu created Bitsclub, and many other team members started blockchain communities. If you have not yet learned about the team, I strongly suggest you do. Check out their LinkedIn pages and also look at the developers Githubs.

Full disclosure:

As a fellow investor and fan of blockchain technology, I got into the crypto world in 2012. Since then, I have mined, traded, and even created an arbitrary trading system. My portfolio includes dozens of different types of tokens/coins. My focus is on innovation rather than "rinse and repeat."
I first learned about Nebulas in the beginning of January 2018. After reading the technical white paper multiple times and fully understanding Nebulas (what it is and what it’s not), I confidentially purchased NAS (ERC-20) tokens.
As with any great blockchain, Nebulas will not be the last, but it is a crucial step to the next generation of blockchain innovation! Without doubt, I see the true potential of blockchain technology, and, if you ask me, Nebulas is an amazing short, medium and long term project, and I’m excited about the future!
To quote a Nebulas founder, "Ask not what blockchain can do for you, ask what you can do for blockchain..." - Hitters Xu

Quick Update (January 31, 2018)

For full transparency, I wanted to add that I have been asked by the Nebulas Team Reddit manager if I would be willing to be a moderator of the Nebulas subreddit. I told them that I would happy to continue helping the community and accepted. There is no extra benefit to me and does not change my opinion about Nebulas. I look forward to continuing helping the community!

References

i: Pg 41 – 6.2
ii: Pg 24 – Last bullet point
iii: Pg 34 - 5.3.1
iv: Pg 35 – 3.3.3
v: Pg 34 – 5.3.1
vi: Visit https://gifto.io/ for more info – Watch the video for an example of what Nebulas will do.
vii: Pg30 – 4.2
viii: Pg 27 – 3.3.2
ix: Pg 26 – Paragraph2
x: Many locations – There are many parts of the white paper that talk about anti-cheating in different capacities.
xi: Pg 26 – 3.3.1
xii: Many locations – There are many parts of the white paper that talk about voting in different capacities.
xiii: Visit https://decred.org/ for more information. For full disclosure, I do own DCR and stake them.
xiv: Pg 45 – 7.1
xv: Pg 45 – 7.2
xvi: Visit https://www.theregister.co.uk/2016/10/18/sha3256_good_for_beelions_of_years_say_boffins/ for more information.
xvii: Visit https://www.theqrl.org for more information. And yes, for full disclosure, I like this project as well, and have invested post ICO.
xviii: Pg 47 - 8
xix: Pg 46 – 7.3
submitted by satoshibytes to nebulas [link] [comments]

Coinbase - How to Find your Bitcoin wallet address - YouTube how to hack bitcoin address 2017 - YouTube How To Create A Bitcoin Address Validation Form Complete Form Validation in JavaScript With Source Code ... #31 Email Validation in JavaScript - YouTube

Bitcoin Price Has “12 Weeks” Left To Validate Four-Year-Cycle Theory 10 mins ago Why One Bitcoin Analyst Believes the Market is “Scared for All the Wrong Reasons” With our online tool, you can verify and validate if a Bitcoin address or multiple addresses are valid. Bitcoin Address allowed by our tool are base58 or xpub format. Our tool will check up to 50 Bitcoin addresses by process, if you want to check more than 50 addresses, please divide your list and check up to 50 addresses at a time. Bitcoin bank users depend on the information reported by the bank, so they can easily be fooled into accepting fabricated transactions. Lightweight (SPV) wallet users depend on full nodes and miners to validate transactions for them. It costs nothing for dishonest full nodes to send unconfirmed fabricated transactions to an SPV wallet. Validate Transactions This tool validates all transactions for errors and lists them in the table below (e.g. wrong or missing tickers, illegal special characters or line breaks in tickers, incorrect numbers, wrong dates, spaces at the end of exchange names and trade groups, different asset values and more). Digital money that’s instant, private, and free from bank fees. Download our official wallet app and start using Bitcoin today. Read news, start mining, and buy BTC or BCH.

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Coinbase - How to Find your Bitcoin wallet address - YouTube

If you want to someone to send you money to your Bitcoin account, Give them this address. you may donate to our network via Bitcoin as well :) Bitcoin addres... Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. In this video I demonstrate how one could take a bitcoin library and export specific cryptographic functions into a standalone javascript file that can then be used in an HTML page. Github: github ... Video tutorial on using blockchain.info's websocket API to monitor a specific Bitcoin address in real-time. Building Bitcoin Websites Book: https://www.amazo... If you want to find out more about the tools we have for cryptocurrency investors in our Masters area, see video here: https://moocharoo.ninja/bmm Also try: ...

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