UK Government Bonds - CNBC

History doesn't repeat but it sure does rhyme. What would this recession look like if it followed a similar time line to 2008?

2008 Global Financial Crisis
Feb 2007: The first tremors start in the US subprime mortgage market in the US.
September 2007: The first bank runs start with Northern Rock in the UK.
March 2008: The first banks start collapsing with Bear Stearns.
September 2008: Lehman Brothers files for bankruptcy.
October 2008: Iceland's financial sector collapses.
December 2008: Countries across the world start announcing they are in recession.
May 2010: European debt crisis kicks off.
It took 13 months to go from feeling the first tremors until the first banks started to collapse. Below is what todays crisis would look like laid out on a similar time line.
2020 Global Debt Crisis:
September 2019: The first tremors start with a broken repo market in the US.
Feb 2020: Covid19 speeds everything up throwing the world into recession.
May 2020: The first of many sovereign debt crises unfold as Lebanon falls causing citizens to burn down their own central bank.
October 2020: The first banks start collapsing.
April 2021: The first banks start filing for bankruptcy.
May 2021: Entire countries financial sectors start collapsing.
July 2021: Countries across the world start falling into sovereign debt crises as their bond markets collapse and inflation spikes.
December 2022: A global debt crisis has engulfed the world leading to worthless government bonds, 20% interest rates and runaway inflation everywhere.
The IMF is trying to push its SDRs as the next global reserve currency while China is trying to get the world to adopt its new Gold backed Yuan. People have stopped measuring Gold and Bitcoin in fiat and now with fiat having hyperinflated the only currency pair on earth that matters is the Gold/Bitcoin pair. One ounce of gold can buy a new car and one bitcoin can buy 25 ounces of gold.
The XBT/XAU rate is 25. This is now the only currency pair traded and reported on earth.
submitted by slvbtc to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

White Swan came, Black Swan's a comin'

Like many here, I'm trying to come up with an investment thesis and a strategy for these uncertain times. I'm currently Bearish - have gone largely to cash, but want to invest in defensive plays because I see much more uncertainty ahead. So this long and rambling post is going to try to play with some ideas I've been having about the future. For the record, I've been investing for 8 years, was primarily an ETF buy and hold investor, and am Canadian, with a background in Political Science. ( I mean, I've got an undergraduate degree and a long-time interest, I'm no expert or nothing.)
I've read Nassim Taleb's Incerto series and have been mainly convinced, I think, and am surprised at the number of people who are calling this a Black Swan (BS) event; there's a post from today where a guy points out that it's not, and that Taleb himself says it's not and he got downvoted to hell. So first off: the Covid-19 pandemic was not a Black Swan. The Covid-19 pandemic, or one like it, has been predicted by damn near everybody for decades. The Obama administration even used a similar pandemic as a war game to get the Trump administration up to speed during the transition, Bill Gates called this years ago, we had a similar outbreak in SARS and H1N1, etc. Even if that wasn't the case, C19 would only be a BS for China - as a bunch of media sources have pointed out, there were US intelligence reports as far back as December saying this would be a huge deal, which were ignored by the administration. So all the suggestions that this is a BS event are really just pointing out how bad many governments, markets, and corporations are at predicting the future - they're unable to predict or prepare, or respond appropriately for a predictable event and only capable of reacting (with the exception of some countries like South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Germany...)
Now with the market rallying the bulls are all saying "it's priced in, you can't fight the Fed, etc," and I'm thinking:
1) The emperor has no clothes; the US government is clearly incompetent. It couldn't even listen to it's own experts about the likely extent of the pandemic, had no plan or even seemingly the ability to be at all proactive. For example, an aircraft carrier had a port call in Vietnam, during the middle of a pandemic that started in Asia. Then, completely predictably, it had an outbreak of C19 and it's capabilities were badly damaged and the administration couldn't even properly help it's own ship, nor manage the public relations fallout that resulted. I mean, do you have any idea how insane it is that that ship was allowed to dock during a pandemic? One of the most powerful military devices that ever existed got taken off line cause the administration couldn't understand it's own intelligence.
This incompetence isn't limited to the US of course - the UK handled their initial response badly and had to switch horses mid-race, Canada lagged badly responding as well, Italy and Spain mismanaged their response - but I'd argue that the US, given their advantages in intelligence collection, should have been best positioned to deal with this crisis so I focus on them.
2) Because of this, I think the odds of a real Black Swan event have gone up considerably, and if one does occur, it will occur when the US is historically divided and weakened and where it's economic system is out of ammunition to deal with a second crisis. I'll explain:
We have been living at at time when major geopolitical disruptions have been absent - while proxy wars and minor terrorist attacks still occur, there's been no wars between great powers for some time, and I think many have come to see this as natural; that the unipolar world will continue. But Russia is resurgent, China has a 50 year plan to grow its economy and eventually take a place as a hegemon, which may be entering end-game, and much of the Western international community has grown uncomfortable with US leadership, given the American tendency to elect incompetent Republicans. So we're likely entering an era of uncertainty and increased instability as the contenders vie for status in the new international order.
This doesn't mean war or open combat - it's become a cliche that the new wars of the 21st century are economic ones, and, given nuclear proliferation that's likely to continue. And I think we're more likely to see significant economic combat in the next 6 months than at almost any time during the last decade, because: 1) Trump is incompetent (and here I should stop just shitting on Republicans... the Dems have picked a 77 year old half senile fool to go up against him. I mean, looking at the two guys contending for the leadership of the most powerful country that has ever existed, it's hard to come away thinking that this is the sign of a healthy political system.)
2)America is weak (relatively speaking obviously, they're still the undisputed big swinging dick) and divided.
3)Because of C19 hits to economy, Trump may not be re-elected. I suspect that if it looked likely that he's re-elected, China at least would be content to sit quiet and wait for 4 more years of dumbasserry to take its toll on US hegemony - similarly with Russia. But if it looks like he'll lose come November, they'll take advantage.
What would that economic war look like? Lots of options that I see, and I'm curious if you guys see other ones. I mean, what would it look like if China dumped treasuries over the next 7 months? Or what would happen if China and Russia, or even OPEC+ decided to trade oil in non-US dollars? Or what if China leverages foreign aid to African and Asian countries hard-hit by C19 for long term trade deals designed to damage US interests? Iran and North Korea are additionally wild cards, and if either one is hard hit by C19 could go down flailing with unpredictable results. Any others I'm missing? Curious to hear other's ideas.
Now, note I'm not saying that odds of economic war with China or any other US adversary are likely; I'm saying if the odds of a geopolitical Black Swan were usually 5% in any given year of the last twenty, I suspect the odds of a major BS have gone up 4 or 5 fold - so like 20-30%. And I'm wondering, given unlimited QE, zero interest rates almost everywhere, central banks everywhere supporting stock and currency markets, etc -- what a defensive portfolio, preferably one that's still exposed to positive black swans like a sudden cure, would look like. Is it gold or silver? Cash? Bitcoin? I've already got enough guns and bullets and a bunker... just kidding about the bunker.
But seriously, I'm thinking something like 10-20% PMs and miners, 20% cash, 20% bonds and the rest equity ETFs of some countries likely to benefit from a stronger and more dominant China, like South Korea and Australia. Given Chinese dishonesty and the opacity of the financial system, investing directly in Chinese companies makes me nervous, though I've been considering a stake in BABA. Canada, it seems to me, is too joined at the hip with the USA to do anything other than follow where it goes.
Anyways, if you stuck with me through all that, thanks and I'd love to hear other's thoughts. I'm absolutely not a prepper nor prone to panic -- I just think we're living in real interesting times and the times are likely to get interestinger in the near future.
submitted by Davidallencoen to investing [link] [comments]

ColossusXT Q2 2020 AMA Ends!

Thank you for being a part of the ColossusXT Q2 2020 AMA! Below we will summarize the questions and answers. The team responded to 46 questions! If your question was not included, it may have been answered in a previous question or AMA. The ColossusXT team will do a Reddit AMA at the end of every quarter.
The winner of the AMA contest is: ookhimself
Congratulations. I will send you a DM on Reddit.
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Q: Why does your blockchain exist and what makes it unique?
A: ColossusXT exists to provide an energy-efficient method of supercomputing. ColossusXT is unique in many ways. Some coins have 1 layer of privacy. ColossusXT and the Colossus Grid will utilize 2 layers of privacy through Obfuscation Zerocoin Protocol, and I2P and these will protect users of the Colossus Grid as they utilize the grid resources. There are also Masternodes and Proof of Stake which both can contribute to reducing 51% attacks, along with instant transactions and zero-fee transactions. This protection is paramount as ColossusXT evolves into the Colossus Grid. Grid Computing will have a pivotal role throughout the world, and what this means is that users will begin to experience the Internet as a seamless computational universe. Software applications, databases, sensors, video, and audio streams-all will be reborn as services that live in cyberspace, assembling, and reassembling themselves on the fly to meet the tasks at hand. Once plugged into the grid, a desktop machine will draw computational horsepower from all the other computers on the grid.
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Q: What is the Colossus Grid?
A: ColossusXT is an anonymous blockchain through obfuscation, along with utilization of I2P (Armis). These features will protect end-user privacy as ColossusXT evolves into the Colossus Grid. The Colossus Grid will connect devices in a peer-to-peer network enabling users and applications to rent the cycles and storage of other users’ machines. This marketplace of computing power and storage will exclusively run on COLX currency. These resources will be used to complete tasks requiring any amount of computation time and capacity, or allow end-users to store data anonymously across the COLX decentralized network. Today, such resources are supplied by entities such as centralized cloud providers which are constrained by closed networks, proprietary payment systems, and hard-coded provisioning operations. Any user ranging from a single PC owner to a large data center can share resources through Colossus Grid and get paid in COLX for their contributions. Renters of computing power or storage space, on the other hand, may do so at low prices compared to the usual market prices because they are only using resources that already exist.
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Q: Is there any estimated date for the grid? What will set you apart from the opposition?
A: We are hoping to have something released for the community in Q4 this year. The difference between other competitors is that ColossusXT is putting consumer privacy first and we’re actively in the process of working with federal and state agencies in the United States.
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Q: How do you plan to get people to implement the technology? At your current rate of development, when do you foresee a minimum viable product being available?
A: We have been strategically networking with businesses, and we are currently undergoing the verification process in the United States to make bids on federal and state projects. We are working on an MVP and our goal is to have at least a portion of the Colossus Grid ready by Q4 2020.
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Q: When we can expect any use-case for COLX? A company or service that uses COLX for its activities/tasks.
A: We’re aiming for Q4 of this year to have an MVP, throughout 2021 we will be strategically making bids on federal and state contracts in the United States with a goal to expand operations exponentially.
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Q: Are there any plans to be listed on the more prominent exchanges e.g binance, kraken?
A: Yes, we have applied to some of these exchanges that are considered Tier 1 or Tier 2 exchanges. Many of them upfront will tell you there are no fees associated with the listing, that is not entirely true most of the time. Regardless, have applied and are awaiting more responses as we move forward. Listing on these exchanges often requires that we cannot announce this information until ColossusXT is live on its platform.
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Q: Partnerships are the norm these days in crypto world. Which partnership would you consider feasible, if any, in order to grow the Colossus Grid project?
A: The Colossus Grid is a huge undertaking both in development and business partnerships. We are moving in both these directions strategically. One of the most important partnerships is not really a partnership but approval to bid on state and federal contracts. Working with the governments around the world will be a big part of the Colossus Grid use-case.
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Q: If the ability to annonymise coins is turned off, can CLX still be marketed as a privacy coin? Do we have a date we can start using this feature again?
A: Yes and No. It’s frustrating right now having a lack of privacy for consumers as we don’t see privacy as a feature but a right. EVERY platform online should have some levels of privacy for their consumers, especially as technology continues to evolve and bad actors continue to use your personal information for their own nefarious purposes. Obfuscation will be implemented in the coming weeks, and Armis will follow suit shortly thereafter.
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Q: When can we expect the grid to come out?
A: We are looking at releasing an MVP towards the end of the year. Stay tuned during Q3 and Q4 as we ramp on technical and business developments.
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Q: Can you tell the current budget for development work?
A: Much of the development work budget comes from Core team member's disposable income, we also use the self-funding treasury that Masternode owners vote on each month.
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Q: Will cold staking be implemented somedays? I like the model of Cardano. Hope you will implement kind of Cardano staking in our wallet. I would love the easiness.
A: ColossusXT staking has been enabled since 2017. We have calculators on the website that will estimate your average staking returns and you can join numerous pools to increase your staking power within the pools. Cold staking is on our radar and will make it into the roadmap when our budget allows us.
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Q: Which part of grid technology are you planning first to go live? Storage/RAM/CPU/GPU/all at once? Separately?
A: We will be rolling the Colossus Grid out in two phases. The first phase will be storage, and then we will roll out computing power (RAM/CPU/GPU).
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Q: Is Armis I2P technology in development testphase I mean, I have read something like that… If Armis goes live, will there be some kind of option in deskopt wallet to transfer anonymous or will every transaction be fully anonymous like e.g. monero?
A: We recently had a testing phase with the community earlier this year, there will be another test phase with community participants who sign up. If you’re interested in this stay tuned on our socials and apply when the next testing phase happens All transactions will be fully anonymous behind Armis.
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Q: What programming languate is being used for developing COLX? How well this programming language do you think is more suitable for developing crypto, in comparison with other programing languages?
A: C++ is what we’re using at ColossusXT. Each crypto project is different but with what we're developing at ColossusXT. We are best suited to utilize C++.
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Q: What is the second biggest milestone other than launching the grid network for the team. What do you think of your competition like Golem network?
A: Armis will be a big milestone, and I don’t think we go back to our Polis partnership which allows users in Europe and Mexico (they do plan to expand to the US and other countries) the ability to spend their ColossusXT (COLX) wherever Mastercard is accepted. I don’t think the Golem network is taking consumer privacy far enough, in the blockchain industry I also see a lack of drive to push adoption within the United States. This is likely due to unclear regulations right now. ColossusXT is at the forefront of these issues and we intend to lead blockchain through these somewhat murky waters.
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Q: I don’t have a lot of knowledge about crypto-technology… but are there any risks of sensitive data-hijacks through Colx infrastructure? Will the Colx-grid be available for individuals or only larger corporations, and how would one get access to the computing power?
A: There are always risks with technology. We are doing extensive testing and more testing prior to releasing anything. Consumer privacy is apart of the foundation of what we’re building at ColossusXT and we want to ensure any and all of your personal information is secure and private. As technology evolves, we will be right here evolving with it to ensure that consumer privacy protections are always in place.
The Colossus Grid will be available to anyone with a computer. You will access it through the desktop wallet.
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Q: Do you have any new exchange listings planned in the near future?
A: Yes, but unfortunately with these things, every day it’s not something we can often say before the exchange makes their own announcements. If you have certain exchanges that you prefer, do not be shy and tag us on Twitter letting us and the exchange know. You can also reach us everyday at all hours of the day and night on Discord and Telegram.
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Q: Given that Colx had no ICO, are we able to ramp development efforts in case we have potential partnership deal on the table?
A: It really depends. We strategically spend every dime we spend on development. We do not like even a single penny to be waisted, so we don’t move as fast as the projects that raised millions of dollars, but we continue moving none the less. Ramping up our development is something we are working on by securing additional funding and we’re currently working on securing funding. 😊
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Q: How is the project development advancing? What are your plans for the next 5 years and what more can we expect from ColossusXT?
A: Our development is continuing on at a steady pace, we’re looking to ramp this up over the next year as the Colossus Grid will take much of our time but we’re excited. Over the next 5 years, you can expect the Colossus Grid to be live in all forms (storage and computing power), Armis will be released and we will share many technical details on how this consumer privacy protection rivals some of the other privacy protections in the blockchain industry. We expect to be verified and approved to work with the agencies in the United States long before then as well and will be aggressively pursuing federal contracts to utilize the computing power of the Colossus Grid. In 5 years, we plan to be a key player not just in the blockchain industry, but throughout the world. If you do not know ColossusXT now, expect to in 5 years or less.
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Q: Users often care less about technology, but rather the value of the token. How do you manage to strike a balance between developing the technology and also improving the value of COLX? There are so many privacy coins now, all of them claiming to have better features that ColossusXT. Moving forward, what do the next 10 years look like for ColossusXT in navigating the wave of privacy projects coming. How can ColossusXT continue to shine in the midst of seemingly legit projects that have come to challenge ColossusXT like mimblewimble projects and Monero, Zcoin, ect.?

A: The Colossus Grid and Masternodes will have a strong relationship with each other. When the Colossus Grid goes live we expect the masternode demand to continue to rise. Masternodes are a great incentive mechanism to increase network strength and will play an important role within the Colossus Grid. The more masternodes online, the less available coins in the circulating supply; which we expect will eventually reflect ColossusXT (COLX) coin value.
Over the next 10 years, ColossusXT (COLX) will solidify itself as a key player in the blockchain industry, and outside the blockchain industry. Following our strategic business plans, we intend to be one of the first, if not the first to truly bring government and other businesses into the blockchain industry through the Colossus Grid. Armis will be our defining privacy feature, which we expect in time will begin to be adopted by other projects. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: How have the number of Masternodes (MNs) increased/decreased over time/in the past few years? What proportion (%) of MNs actively take part in Governance? How do you see the number of MNs increasing/decreasing in the next couple of years? Is there a trend upwards or downwards?
Is there a specific number (or range) of MNs the team would like to attain ideally? Is it better to have as many MNs as possible or is there a point at which too many MNs start to have an adverse effect on the performance of the blockchain?
Hope this wasn’t too many questions in one :), Ahmed

A: The number of masternodes in the active network is more or less the same, fluctuating around 200-220. About 40% - 50% of masternodes participate actively in governance (see https://governance.colossusxt.io). We expect a number of masternodes to grow as they will have additional benefits with Colossus Grid (see business plan: http://bit.ly/COLXBPLive).
As the team had no premines, only the dev fund can be used for masternodes which is hard to maintain due to actual budget flow. It’s better to have as many masternodes as possible for the network, there is no adverse effect.
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Q: Of all the milestones that $COLX has achieved since your humble beginnings, which do you consider to be the best of it all? What achievements do you feel proud most?
A: It’s often not mentioned but I’m very proud of our partnership with PolisPay, which allows ColossusXT community members to purchase Amazon, Spotify, and other gift cards with ColossusXT (COLX) through the Polis platform. You are also able to spend your COLX anywhere Mastercard is accepted, the card is available only for EU citizens right now and the Polis team hopes to bring in other countries in the future.
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Q: There are problems that can slow down the course of a project such as the emergence of globalization, given the tighter budget, shorter implementation time requirements. My question is, How does $COLX resolve the issue?

A: Given the current situations around the world the Colossus Grid has more value than it ever has, and that value will continue to grow once we have released the Colossus Grid for consumers to share and utilize resources. You can already see from the [email protected] initiative that people are eager to share their computing resources to help researchers simulate different COVID19 simulations. We’ve always worked on a very small budget at ColossusXT starting with 0$ in funding and no pre-mine or ICO/IEO. This project was built for the community by the community, and as of lately we’ve actually been ramping up our business strategies and developments. Since we have all already worked remotely before the COVID19 pandemic, it interestingly allowed us more time to focus and achieve these goals as our day jobs allowed us to spend more time on ColossusXT.
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Q: How will you fight with regulators who are trying to stop privacy coins?

A: We have an amazing legal team at ColossusXT, and they are on top of any new law or regulation that comes out. We’re not afraid of regulators and our legal team makes sure that everything we do for ColossusXT is law-abiding. It's time the world stops looking at privacy as a feature and as a right, especially when you read about different applications and platforms using your personal DATA for their benefit. ColossusXT will continue to push this, and we're prepared to lobby this to lawmakers. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: What type of utilities can $COLX give to users over its competitors like GOLM (computation) or STORJ (Data)?

A: The Colossus Grid has some major differences between Golem and Storj. One we’re a privacy-focused project. If you take a look at many of these applications and platforms today, in some way or another you’re giving up personal information, and/or geographic information. ColossusXT is focused on protecting consumer information, we do not look at privacy as a feature, we see privacy as a right, especially in the tech world today.
The second part of this question is that we’re currently in the verification process of registering with the United States federal and state governments so that we can legally bid on federal and state projects and work with different agencies. This will ensure that as the community members are sharing their idle resources, large corporations and businesses are using it. I’m not aware of the mentioned projects being registered in the United States or taking steps to work with the United States government.
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Q: How will computing power and storage sharing look like, for an average user (marketplace, program download)? What are you currently working on, when can we expect MVP? TY
A: The marketplace and Colossus Grid will be inside the ColossusXT desktop wallet that you currently have now. The UI/UX will change some to allow the additional settings and tabs that will become available and we’re preparing an MVP right now and we hope to share those details with you over the next few months, ask us again in the Q3 AMA if you haven’t seen anything yet :)
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Q: What would you say is the $COLX killer feature that sets it apart from the rest of the competition.
A: We believe that Armis is our killer feature. We recently had a beta this year with the community and will be moving forward later this year with Armis. ColossusXT consumers will have their geographic location and IP fully hidden behind the Armis layer for further security and anonymity for the transactions which will also take place in the Colossus Grid resource marketplace in the future.
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Q: I have been a silent follower of $COLX and I must say that I'm truly impressed with how the team has been diligently working on the project. It'd be nice to have the community be part of something like a bounty or a social awareness contest. As this will not only attract more users to the platform but would also strengthen the bond within the community. When can we possibly expect a community project of this level? #spreadthegrid
A: We currently have a Gleam competition ongoing for social awareness, and we just hired a community manager to spread more community awareness and will be rolling on competitions more regularly. Every quarter we have an AMA on Reddit for the community to ask questions, or just gripe at us, and one person each quarter is awarded 100,000 COLX for participating in the AMA. As we deliver our targets and grow, we will shift more funds from development funds to marketing funds to raise further awareness.
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Q: "Our main competitor is crypto adoption. We are all here to make it happen together.", this is quoted from a founder of a known crypto wallet. Do you see competition as something that strengthens the project as a whole or as a possible distraction due to pressure to be at the top of the crypto ecosystem?

A: This is a two scenario situation. Competition is good for ColossusXT, and we look at our main competitor in blockchain as Golem (GNT), having said that though too much competition or sometimes maximalist behavior isn’t good for crypto, many of these projects should be coming together to lobby lawmakers for laws and regulations that are good for the blockchain industry, as this is still an emerging market and the laws and regulations aren’t exactly in place at this time.
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Q: "For people to believe in crypto, they need to understand the tangible benefits it offers to our society.", a remark made by a crypto project in the past. What exactly would be $COLX real life global benefits? And how do you plan on achieving this?
A: ColossusXT vision will be achievable when the Colossus Grid is released. We are currently in the process of registering with state and federal agencies in the United States, once we are registered to work with these agencies we will pursue contracts with the government, cybersecurity firms and colleges all around the United States, and the world to utilize the resources on the Colossus Grid. We’ve already started building business relationships for this very purpose.
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Q: According to you how much time will it take for $COLX to get into mainstream adoption and execute all the plans set for this project?
A: It’s almost impossible to set a timeline on when the world/people will begin to adopt ColossusXT (COLX) and the Colossus Grid. We don’t believe that adoption for ColossusXT will happen before the Colossus Grid is live, and if I gave you an exact timeline for when or how long it will take you for the Colossus Grid to be adopted I would be lying to you, but we are already forming business relationships and making strategic moves to be able to bid, and work with state and federal agencies in the United States.
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Q: Does Tokens.net plan any kind of staking ($COLX or other coins)?
A: We will reach out to the tokens.net team and see if they have any plans to allow staking.
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Q: How will you try to boost adoption of #COLX, how do you think you will motivate programmers to join opensource project?
A: The Colossus Grid will be available for anyone to use, or share their idle resources for other consumers to use. We will be focusing on providing these resources to state and federal governments, cybersecurity firms, and researchers all across the world. Certainly, we expect some community members to use these resources to mine different PoW cryptocurrencies, but the team at ColossusXT will be focused on bringing in large colleges and universities as well as big cybersecurity businesses that may need supercomputing power at 1/10th of the current prices. Our programmers are our only paid team members, and we pay them at a competitive rate. We’re looking to bring in some more programmers later this year.
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Q: Do you have any special development funds for programmers?
A: Sometimes we pay our programmers out of our own pocket, sometimes we pay them in ColossusXT. It really depends on what kind of agreements have been made. We have been aggressively pursuing different funding opportunities throughout 2020 so that we can expand our development team and in the future, we may have incentives to drive programmers into joining our team. Right now we just stick to a competitive pay scale within the industry.
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Q: Why Android Wallet Revision hasn't been done? Any problems?
A: The Android wallet revision took some time to be approved in the Google Playstore, but it has been released and live since June 15, 2020.
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Q: Whats the second biggest milestone other than the grid network for COLX team?
A: Armis is likely to be considered our second biggest milestone this year, although as I mentioned above this can easily be overshadowed by our Polis partnership which allows you to spend ColossusXT (COLX) anywhere Mastercard is accepted. Although the epay debit card ownership is currently restricted to certain countries (EU zone only), these restrictions will lift in time.
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Q: How is COLX team going to contribute to crypto adoption, other than building a robust network?
A: We’re already in the process of verification to work with state and federal agencies. Adoption for blockchain projects isn’t going to move fast. I read a report just a few days ago about how scammers in the crypto industry stole over 2 million dollars worth of crypto just from the “Elon Musk” impersonations on Twitter.
We will continue to build our network, and seek out state and federal agencies as well as private cybersecurity firms that can utilize the Colossus Grid, we’re not just focused on making noise on social media, we intend to make noise throughout the entire world.
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Q: Are their industry partners to COLX that are awaiting your network to go live?
A: Yes, although I hesitate to go into too much detail here. We are talking with business leaders.
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Q: The ongoing crisis affected the market badly, making many projects far from their targets. What is $COLX strategy in order to survive and pass through this crisis?
A: I agree it affected the market badly, especially the projects that raised hundreds of millions of dollars in crypto and held it through the entire market correction. ColossusXT strategy is different from those affected, we’ve always had a smaller budget than these large projects. We spend the money we have available very wisely, and we’re not in a hurry to grab something that sounds good without doing our due diligence. We make our moves very strategically.
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Q: I gotta ask, what made $COLX decide to get listed on Tokens.net? What beneficial advantage does $COLX get in doing so? How about Tokens.net?
A: Tokens.Net is one of the best exchanges ColossusXT is listed at the moment in comparison to others in terms of volume.
  1. Tokens.net is one of the most secure and transparent exchanges out there, registered in the UK.
  2. The team behind the exchange has deep roots in the crypto/blockchain space, it was co-founded by Damian Merlak, a crypto-pioneer and co-founder of Bitstamp.
  3. Tokens.net provides free auto-trading tool / Market Making Bot. Their Dynamic Trading Rights concept adds transparency to trading volumes.
  4. They allow the community voting option of only truly decentralized projects after a thorough screening.
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Q: Hey everyone! What is the main purpose of the coin $COLX, does it have its own chain or is it some sort of an ERC-20 token? Thank you for the answers.
A: ColossusXT has never been an ERC-20 coin. We have been operating on our own mainnet since 2017. The purpose of ColossusXT (COLX) is to be the native currency of the Colossus Grid. This will allow users to share their idle resources on their computers, and consumers will rent/buy those resources to complete whatever they intend to use them for, from processing large DATA to running scientific simulations, to even mining PoW cryptocurrencies.
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Q: When we can expect any usecase for COLX? A company or service that uses colx for its activities / tasks.
A: There are currently use cases now if your location allows you to utilize the Polis Pay app, or if you have a Polis Pay card you can buy things with ColossusXT (COLX). I myself have tested the card buying gas at a gas station. These are not ColossusXT’s primary focus though and much of our use case will not start until the Colossus Grid is live.
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Q: What pairs will colx have to trade with on tokens.net // Will you connect #COLX with USDT EURS or BTC?
A: ColossusXT will be initially paired with Bitcoin (BTC). If the community would like different pairs, they can certainly request them and we will reach out to tokens.net and work to facilitate requests.
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Q: Will you try to convince users to trade on tokens.net if so how will you do it?
A: There is currently a gleam competition for users to sign up and trade on tokens.net. We “shill” tokens.net accordingly through social media to the ColossusXT community, but can’t really convince anyone to use a certain exchange, although we will try to push as many members to tokens.net as we can. We have many masternode holders who reside in the United States and they are not yet allowed to trade on tokens.net.
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Q: How will you try to create liquidity for your pairs?
A: We would like to increase the adoption rate with real-world partnerships such as our partnership with PolisPay for the use of gift/debit cards. As the liquidity is linked with the use cases, supply/demand mechanics, we are also preparing to provide additional use cases of COLX for the crypto world in an innovative & pioneering way; for the time being, we can hint this as a side business till we deliver fully operational Colossus Grid.
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Q: How big is a development team of #COLX?
A: The ColossusXT team is probably bigger than some people realize, partly because many of the team members are very private. We have 9 core members, 2 in-house developers, 3 Colossus Grid architects, and 2 Colossus Grid developers.
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Q: Do you have some security guys in the team?
A: Yes, although I’m hesitant to share too many personal details about team members. We have core team members who have been working in different fields of IT security for several years.
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Q: Since #COLX is planning on having some sort of a marketplace where you can take advantage of computing resources and the blockchain as well, are there any plans on introducing smart contracts? Will it help the grid? Is there a place for it?
A: This has been mentioned a few times in the past so it’s something on our radar, it’s currently not in the development timeline as the Colossus Grid is a massive amount of work. There may be a place for it as the blockchain industry evolves, and I can certainly see some cases where a smart contract can add some value to the Colossus Grid.
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Important Information:
Website
Whitepaper
Roadmap
Business Plan
Wiki
Governance
Partners
GitHub
What is ColossusXT? (YouTube)
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Follow ColossusXT on:
Twitter
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AMA History:
2018 Q1 2018 Q2 2018 Q3 2018 Q4
2019 Q1 2019 Q2 2019 Q3 2019 Q4
2020 Q1
submitted by PioyPioyPioy to ColossuscoinX [link] [comments]

Bitcoin in your pension with CoinShares / XBT Provider AB?

I have a small amount of money in a pension that I can't touch for 20 years or so (that I also have no intention of paying into any more), and I'm considering moving it to an ETN tracking Bitcoin's price. I understand "not your keys, not your Bitcoin" and would much prefer not to have this locked in a pension account, but I'd rather speculate on the price of Bitcoin than have this in Equities/Bonds/Cash right now.
The only one I can find here in the UK, is the "XBT Provider Bitcoin Tracker ONE ETN" which is a Coinshares product (charging 2.5% annual management fee) with Coinbase as the custodian. If my pension provider goes bust, I'm covered up to £85,000, but if the fund manager (Coinshares) goes bust I probably lose everything (especially with the government's current opinion on crypto assets).
That's a long way of asking: any opinions on CoinShares and the founders? I wasn't familiar with them but having done a bit of Googling they seem legit? Thanks for any thoughts!
submitted by punchbagged to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

License to Kill – Bond(s) explained

The below is the text from my latest blog post about bonds, if you want to see the original with pretty pictures, charts, graphs etc then click on this link.
Ok, the title is an obvious dad joke, but as it happens it still fits in with my naming convention for posts so happy days! On to more serious stuff.
The most common proposed asset allocation for people pursuing FIRE seems to involve having absolutely as much invested in equities (or to a lesser extent property) as possible, and reducing every other asset class to as little as possible. Which is certainly one way of doing things, and given the great performance of shares and property over the last 20 years or more there is an argument to be made for doing things this way.
It’s certainly not the only way of doing things though, and I will be trying to show why there is a case to be made for investing some money in other asset classes, in particular Fixed Income aka Bonds.
So what are bonds?
Bonds are a type of debt that is issued by governments, semi-government organisations, and corporations, so basically you’re lending them money. In Australia we also have what are called hybrid securities, but they’ve got some big enough differences that I’ll talk about them in a future post (probably).
Bonds are also one of those fun areas where there is an exception to every rule, so although what I’ve written below is broadly accurate there is always going to be some type of bond or a specific issue that breaks one of the rules.
So please don’t be an internet hero and “well ackshually” me about premium redemption/issue bonds, soft calls, hard calls, investor puts, floaters, PIK notes and all the rest of it because broadly speaking it isn’t going to make much difference for the purposes of explaining bonds. Basically play nice readers!
Talk numbers to me…
Bonds are all about math. As I’m sure regular readers of this blog can imagine this makes me very happy, and probably explains in part why I spent a large part of my career working in an area where understanding bonds was crucial, although to make things more interesting we added on a bunch of other stuff like equity options, credit derivatives, FX etc.
The main numbers to think about are the price you paid for the bond, the coupon on the bond, the yield on the bond, the time to maturity, and the maturity value of the bond. From those main numbers we also derive a bunch of other numbers I’ll talk about later.
Bonds are normally issued at a price of 100, with a fixed coupon (interest payment based on the maturity value of the bond) and a fixed maturity value at a known maturity date. So that’s 4 of the numbers covered already, happy days!
A lot of the time though you’re not going to be buying that bond when it is issued, you’ve buying it when it’s already trading in which case chances are pretty good you didn’t pay 100 for the bond. Buying it along the way doesn’t affect the coupon or the redemption amount at maturity or when it matures.
What it does affect though is the yield. There are a bunch of different yield measures but I’m going to go with yield to maturity, ie what yield (return) will you get if you hold the bond to maturity.
It’s not a perfect analogy, but one way to think about bonds is that they’re like a term deposit where the amount that you can buy it for moves around. If you buy a bond for $10,000 that is going to mature in a year and it has a 2% coupon and redeems for $10,200 (redemption price plus coupon payment), then your yield (2%) is the same as your coupon (2%).
But if interest rates have changed and so the price of the bond has changed and you buy that bond for $9,900 or $10,100, then your yield will be different from your coupon, either 3% or 1% respectively. Hopefully that makes sense? BTW I’ve rounded the numbers here to try and keep it nice and simple.
Most bonds pay interest on a semi annual basis (I used an annual payment in the example above to make things easier) so to figure out how much interest you get when it gets paid it’ll be the coupon divided by two.
Hopefully all of that makes sense, if not let me know in the comments.
Issuers of Bonds
As I said above the main issuers of bonds are governments, semi government organisations, and corporations.
Debt issued by governments is generally the safest type, because so long as they control the printing press then they can always print more money to pay you back. The Eurozone is a bit of an exception to this (understatement of the year) but in most of the other major sovereign bond markets like the US, Australian, the UK etc it’s true.
Emerging markets are a bit different because they often issue debt in USD, which means that if things go pear shaped then they can’t just print more money to pay off bondholders.
There can also be issues with getting your money back from sovereigns if they have too much debt, such as when they either don’t control the printing press (Greece) or the bond is issued in a different currency (Argentina) but for the most part if you lend money to a developed country in their own currency then you can pretty reliably count on getting your money back.
There are also bonds issued by semi government organisations like the World Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development etc, these are slightly less safe for the most part but you’re still not taking on much risk of not getting your money back.
Debt issued by corporations is riskier, partly because businesses obviously can’t just print more money to pay you back, and because corporations can and do go bust. Sure it doesn’t seem likely that Telstra or Woolworths or the big banks are going to blow up any time soon, but there are plenty of other bond issuers out there with much more fragile finances.
As you would expect the more risk you are taking on the more return you want in order to be compensation for doing so. This is because unlike a term deposit the value of your capital isn’t protected. If you put $10,000 into a term deposit for a year with an interest rate of 2%, then you know that in a year’s time you will get back that $10,000 plus $200 in interest.
If for some reason the bank you invested that money through goes bust, the government will make you whole (up to the value of $250,000 per entity per approved deposit institution.
If you invest in a corporate bond and the company goes bust, well you’re probably not going to get all or maybe any of your money back. The good news is that you’re more likely to get money back than equity holders, but if the debts of the company are a lot more than the assets then you’re going to be in trouble.
There’s a clear framework for what happens if a company goes bust and who gets paid first and in how much etc, the short version of this is that equity holders are absolutely last in line but depending on what type of bonds you own you may not be a meaningful better position either.
And unlike a stock, when you own a bond you don’t own a piece of the issuer of the bond, you just own part of their devt. So if the company does great and starts making a fortune, you as a bondholder don’t get paid any more than what the terms of the bond state. Basically you can get a fair chunk of the downside and none of the upside beyond the terms of the bond. On the plus side this doesn’t happen particularly often, most of the time you’ll get what you were promised
Bond ratings
Now obviously some companies are more secure and stable than others. If you take a bond from the biggest company in the ASX200 which is CBA, then it’s more likely to fulfil the terms of the bond than whatever the 200th company is. That’s not to say the 200th company won’t, just that there is more risk. The actual degree of this risk is quantified in a couple of different ways.
First of all there are ratings agencies out there who will assign a rating from anywhere to super safe (AAA) to D (in default) with a bunch of graduations in between. Anything rated from AAA to BBB- is what is called Investment Grade (IG), everything below that is called High Yield (HY) or less politely Junk.
Just because a bond is IG doesn’t guarantee it will pay off, likewise something which is HY isn’t guaranteed or even likely to fail. For the most part though the different ratings given tend to play out that way in the real world, with far less defaults for bonds rated AAA vs bonds rated BB for example.
The big three ratings agencies are Standard & Poors (S&P), Moodys, and Fitch, and between them they’ll rate most of the bonds and/or issuers. They tend to be fairly backward looking in my opinion, and they were hugely and obviously wrong on rating mortgage backed securities back in the GFC. Still, they will generally give you a reasonable idea of the creditworthiness of the bond issuer.
Because bonds are also traded in the marketplace you can take the yield offered on a bond with a particular maturity, compare it to an equivalent government bond, and using some fun math (yeah baby!) back out a credit spread which that bond trades over treasuries (or swaps but I’m not going to get into that). The higher the spread, the higher the perceived risk of the bond, and vice versa of course.
Are bonds safe?
Well it kinda depends on what you mean by safe. If you mean are the bonds likely to deliver what the issuer of the bonds promised, then generally yes. As I said with government and semi government bonds you will almost certainly get all your coupons and the maturity value of the bonds delivered on time. Yeah, there are some exceptions to this but you’re unlikely to run into trouble with Australia, the US, the UK, the more economically sensible members of the Eurozone etc.
Similarly with corporates the vaast majority of the time you will get your money back on investment grade bonds, and it’s pretty rare to not get your money back on high yield bonds as well. That’s not to say it doesn’t happen, but it doesn’t happen much.
If you mean am I going to get back what I put into the bond, well no they’re not necessarily safe, particularly if you sell before maturity. Remember when I said bonds are kinda like term deposits that can trade? Well when they trade those prices move around, and they can move around a lot!
Why do bond prices move?
There are a bunch of reasons why bond prices move around, the main ones are changes in the interest rate environment, changes in economic conditions, and changes specific to the issuer of the bond.
We’ll talk about interest rates first. Bond prices have an inverse relationship with bond yields, which is a fancy way of saying if interest rates (yields) go down then bond prices go up.
How much do they go up? Well that depends on the magnitude of the change in rates, and a bunch of factors involving the bond. Basically the longer till maturity on the bond, and the lower the coupon on the bond, the more sensitive it will be to changes in interest rates. This is measured using modified duration and convexity.
Modified duration takes into account the timing of the cashflows of the bond (so coupons and maturity) and gives you a number which is typically a little less than that number of years to maturity, the higher the coupon the more it decreases the modified duration. If you multiply that modified duration by the change in interest rates in percentage terms, it will tell you how much the bond price will move by (in theory at least).
So if you have a modified duration of say 7.117, then for every 1 percent move in interest rates the bond price will change by 7.117 points. So if your bond price was previously 100 and rates moved down by 1%, then your bond should now be worth 107.117. Happy days! Conversely if rates moved up, well your bond is now worth 92.883. Not so happy days.
I’ve used the [ASX bond calculator](http://%20https//www.asx.com.au/asx/research/bondCalculator.do) to give a couple of examples using the current Aussie 10 year bond. You can hopefully see below that by changing the yield on the bond from 1.5% to 1% the market price has gone from 116.87 to 121.83, roughly a 4.25% change in price for a 0.5% change in rates, so presumably the modified duration on the bond is about 8.5.
To make things slightly more complex, that relationship isn’t fixed due to something called convexity. Instead of being a linear relationship, it’s actually a changing one (a curve rather than a line). Basically the more bonds prices move away from where they were issued the more that relationship will change.
Then there are things like GDP numbers, employment numbers, consumer sentiment surveys, PMI surverys, and all sorts of other economic news which will potentially move bond yields around, generally pretty slightly but it really depends on how important that economic number is and how much of a change from expectations it is.
On top of that for corporations changes in their own situations will have an effect on what their credit rating/spread is which will affect prices as well. If a company goes from being loss making to suddenly making a profit, then that’s going to be good for their credit and the bond price is likely to go up. Bad news like a profit warning will potentially mean a higher credit spread and lower price for the bond.
There is also general investor appetite for risk, so if investors are happy to take on more risk in their asset allocation (risk on) then they will likely sell off lower risk assets like bonds and buy higher risk assets like equities and to a lesser extent property. If things change and they want to go risk off, then the reverse happens and money tends to come out of equities and into bonds.
What happens to bonds if the stock market crashes or we have another GFC?
A stock market crash is actually one of the more compelling reasons to invest in bonds. This is because when stock markets crash investors tend to put their money into asset classes where they feel a lot safer ie, bonds. The rationale is that getting your money back is now hugely important, and even more important is not losing all your money as you will in those horrible equities which you knew you should never have invested in but that horrible financial adviser talked you into.
People. Are. Not. Rational. People panic. People sell assets which are going down in value even though they know they should be holding on for the long term. This applies not just to retail investors, but also to professionals who should know better.
In the GFC I spent plenty of time talking to institutional investors with a long term time horizon (ie 5 or 10 years etc) who suddenly decided they had to get out because of bad one month performance. People will bail out if the proverbial is hitting the fan. I wrote a bit about my experiences with the GFC here, and believe me there are a lot of people who are not going to be as cool calm and collected as they think they will be.
It’s very very very very (extra very for emphasis) important to note here that at this point in time investors will not be thinking that all bonds are much the same. When they are looking for somewhere to put their money that they now have after panic selling out of equities, they will park it in the safest place they can find, ie government bonds (aka treasuries). This will cause the price of those bonds to rise because of supply and demand.
If they still want to take on some amount of risk then they might put some into investment grade bonds, again this will push the price up a bit. They will almost certainly not put money into high yield bonds, because those are risky and in a crisis will behave pretty similarly to equities, ie they will fall in value. If anything they will more than likely try to pull money out of HY bonds, pushing the price down.
This excellent post really shows this in the below graph which shows the average performance of different types of bonds for a 10% or greater fall in the stock market (all of this is for the US but the same principle applies to Australia).
It doesn’t work in every case, as shown below (same source), but in almost all cases of a big crash in equities, treasury and to a lesser extent IG bonds gave you a big positive return to help out. HY, not so much and in some cases actually gave you a worse performance than equities themselves.
Please believe me when I say it is a huge help psychologically to have some of your investments going up when the others are going down, which to me at least is a great reason to have some money invested in bonds.
You’ve convinced me, how much should I have in bonds?
Ok so I’m probably being slightly optimistic here given the number of posts I see on reddit about how VDHG would be so much better if Vanguard got rid of that terrible 10% that’s invested in bonds and put it all in equities instead.
It would be nice to think though that some people are now realising that come the next crash they too might not behave entirely rationally, and it sure would be nice to own some assets that are going to zig when the stock market zags, so to speak.
On the off chance that I have actually convinced people, well it really comes down to your particular risk profile. This is going to be hard to believe for some people, but in the US the default portfolio for most investors is 60% stocks and 40% bonds.
Looking at Oz , the default balanced investment option for most super funds over here are supposed to have something like a 70:30 split between growth assets (shares and property) and defensive assets (bonds and cash) although the reality is a long long way from that if you actually look into how they invest (that’s a discussion for another time though). So that maybe provides a useful starting point.
I know that the average FIRE portfolio that gets talked about particularly from younger bloggers (who have likely never experienced a sustained down market) is pretty much 100% equities and property, maybe even leveraged up. Which is fine if you can hold on through the downturns, but not everyone can do this because it is extremely difficult to do psychologically. I wish them all the best of luck, but I am pretty sure that at least some of them will decide that it’s all too much and sell whenever we have the next crash.
There are exceptions to the rule though. One of my favourite bloggers, and someone who I know thinks deeply about this sort of stuff, is the FI Explorer who has about 15% in bonds and 15% in defensive alternatives (gold and bitcoin) as per his latest portfolio update.
Whilst I don’t like Bitcoin myself, or gold for that matter, he writes a good explanation about why he holds both here. I still don’t like either asset myself, but I recognise that I am not infallible, I could well be wrong about this, and certainly historically they have worked well as hedges.
In any case the more important point here is that there is basically a 30% allocation to what would be regarded as defensive type assets. This is actually a bit over his actual target of 25% in defensive assets, but he probably sleeps just fine at night.
I’m a little more aggressive in only having about 21% of my assets (excluding PPoR) in cash and bonds, but it’s not a huge difference. Both of us have been invested through stock market crashes and hopefully have come to realise that we are not the hyper rational investors that economists believe we are, and therefore it’s best to have a bit invested in stuff that will go up or at least hold it’s value when everything else is crashing.
How do I buy bonds?
You can buy bonds individually, but you tend to need to have a fair amount of money to do so and you can run into a lot of problems with liquidity, big bid/ask spreads etc, it’s hard to build up a diversified portfolio etc.
I buy bonds the same way I buy stocks, ie via an ETF. Most of the major ETF providers have some variety of index ETFs tracking Treasury only or Treasury plus Investment Grade bonds, or you can buy HY stuff if you want. Personally I just use one ETF which has about 75% in treasuries and the rest in IG. There are also some actively managed bond funds out there, either as ETFs or managed funds.
For the reasons I outlined above about bonds being a psychological safe harbour I personally would (and do) only invest in bonds which are likely to up in a crisis, but different strokes for different folks applies as always.
Any more questions?
I’ve only really scratched the surface here of talking about bonds, but at the same time I feel like it’s an overwhelming amount of information. If you have more questions then as always I’m happy to answer them in the comments!
Do you invest in bonds? If you enjoyed this post and would like to read more like it then please subscribe!
submitted by AussieHIFIRE to fiaustralia [link] [comments]

A guide to index funds

A few weeks ago I wrote a post about some things it took me a while to figure out when I started investing. This was well received, and there were some interesting follow up questions, especially around what to invest in. A commonly recommended strategy on this sub-reddit is to invest in index funds, but that was another thing that it took me a while to figure out, and my first post didn't really get that far, so I present the spiritual successor: Things I Wish I'd Known Earlier About Index Funds
This write-up is intended to broadly answer the question:
How do I invest in a way that my returns will track the overall UK, US, or global stock market?
N.B. I've also cross-posted this to a https://reboapp.co.uk/content/index-funds/, which is a knowledge base I'm building for UK investors. Let me know if there are any particular topics you'd like me to write about in future.

What is an index?

An index is a calculated value that summarises the performance of some category of assets into a single number which can be tracked over time. For indexes which track stock markets, this is typically the total valuation of the companies in some section of the stock market. For example, the FTSE 100 is an index which tracks the value of the largest 100 companies listed on the London Stock Exchange.
Market indexes are normally calculated using capitalisation weighting, where the companies included in the index are selected based on their market valuation, and the larger the market valuation of a company, the more weight it is given in the index.

What is a capitalisation-weighted index?

In a capitalisation-weighted index, the index is calculated by summing the total market value of all of the companies. This means that if one company is worth £20 billion, and another is worth £10 billion, the former company will contribute twice as much to the index. A 10% increase in the price of the former company would increase the index by twice as much as a 10% rise in the latter company.
An index is also usually normalised, so that it starts at a nice value like 1,000 on the first day it is measured. This normalisation happens by recording the sum of the market values of the companies on the first day, and then dividing later measures by this amount.

What is an index fund?

An index fund (also commonly referred to as a 'tracker') is a wrapper which will hold shares in the various assets in an index, weighted by the same weighting as in the index, so that the value of the index fund should track the underlying index closely over time. If the index goes up by 3%, then so should the index fund.
For example, an index fund which tracks the FTSE 100 has £1 billion invested in it in total, then that £1 billion will be used by the fund manager to buy £1 billion worth of shares in the FTSE 100 companies, weighted by their market value, so that the fund would hold twice as much of a £20 billion company than a £10 billion company. As the valuations rise and fall, and as companies come in and out of the FTSE 100, the index fund will buy and sell shares to keep their allocation as close to the FTSE 100 weighting as possible.

Why use capitalisation weighting for an index?

By using a capitalisation-weighted index, the index is measuring how the market is choosing to allocate capital. If the market value of one company in the index is £20 billion (the total value of all of the company's shares adds up to £20 billion), and another company has a market value of £10 billion, then the shareholders are valuing the first company at twice as much as the second. If they weren't, then some people would sell shares in the company that they thought was overvalued, and buy shares in the other company that they thought was undervalued, until the prices shifted to match what people think. Of course some people might think this, while others think the opposite, so the market value only represents the average sentiment of the shareholders. There is no correct objective valuation, only the valuation that comes from the average of all the shareholder decisions. This is why we talk about market value rather than just value. By using a capitalisation-weighted index, the index tracks this market valuation.
Now we could define loads of different indexes based on completely different criteria. For example, rather than worrying about market capitalisation, we could form an index based upon the value of all companies whose names begin with an 'L'. It's unlikely that this would tell us anything particularly interesting about the market though!

Why the market average is the best you can do

When you invest in an index fund tracking a capitalisation-weighted index, you are delegating your investment decisions to the market. You will be investing in companies in the index in proportion to how much capital everyone else has invested in these companies. This may seem like blindly following the herd, and you might think that you can do better than this, but you almost certainly can't.
The reason you can't beat the market is that it's a zero-sum game - if you're going to do better than the average, someone else has to do worse than the average. So if you are going to do better than the market average over the long term, you need to make better decisions than at least 50% of the other people making active investment decisions. When the market contains institutional investors, hedge funds, people with PhDs, very fast computers, and significant amounts of money, it's unlikely that you're going to be in the upper half.
Instead of trying to beat the market average yourself, you might be tempted to invest in an actively managed fund, where the investors try to make strategic picks to beat the market. The managers of such funds certainly have more resources available to them than you, and some even have excellent histories of market beating returns. However, there's no way for you to tell if an actively managed fund is actually better than the market average, or if they've just been lucky in the past.
To illustrate this, consider the following thought experiment: If I pick 500 people and ask them to flip a coin 10 times in a row, I'd expect one or two of them to get 10 heads in row. If we pick one of those people, and look at their coin flipping record, then this person appears to be very talented at flipping a coin and getting heads. However, if I asked them to flip the coin again, they would have a 50/50 chance, just like everyone else. So in a world where there are many actively managed funds, some will have done better than the market average in the past. But how can we tell whether they were just lucky, or, on the contrary, if they will continue to beat the market? The unfortunate answer is you likely can't.

Structure of Index Funds

So far, we've covered the basics of the index fund concept, but in order to actually get your money invested, you'll need to know a little bit about what real index funds look like in practice. If you haven't already, this might be a good time to review my original post on getting started with investing.
In the UK there are two common types index funds:
The legal structure of these funds doesn't matter too much to you as a personal investor, but there are some differences between OEICs and ETFs that you should be familiar with:
For more information on the differences between OEICs and ETFs, check out this write up from Monevator, as well as the wiki here in /ukpersonalfinance:

Company size, geography and other factors

Hopefully the previous sections have demystified the workings of indexes and index funds to some degree. However, you may still have questions about which index funds to invest in. That's worth a whole separate write up, but here is a brief overview of the landscape of some of the different types of index funds that are available:

Large cap, mid cap and small cap

Large cap companies are those with the largest capitalisations, and in the UK typically refers to the FTSE 100 companies. That is, the largest 100 companies in the UK. The smallest company in the FTSE 100 has a market capitalisation of around £4 billion. Some example index funds tracking large cap companies are:
Mid cap companies are those with smaller capitalisations, typically referring to the FTSE 250 companies, which are the 101st-350th companies in the UK by market capitalisation. The market capitalisation of these ranges between around £4 billion to £500 million. Some example index funds:
Small cap companies are those with smaller market capitalisations still, but it's a less well defined list than large or mid cap companies. An example index fund:

Geography

Index funds also provide a convenient way to invest in foreign markets, outside the UK. The funds are located in the UK, and priced in GBP, so they are very accessible to a UK investor, but can hold investments in European, US, or global markets.
The S&P 500 index is similar to the FTSE 100 index in the UK, but tracking the top 500 companies in the US. The Vanguard S&P 500 ETF is an index fund tracking the S&P 500.
Likewise, the EURO STOXX 50 index tracks the largest 50 companies in Europe, and can be invested in through index funds such as the iShares EURO STOXX 50 UCITS ETF.
There also exist indexes which aim to track the global market, such as the MSCI World index.

Other assets

As well as indexes which track company valuations, there are indexes which track bond valuations. For example the Vanguard UK Government Bond Index Fund aims to track the Bloomberg Barclays U.K. Government Float Adjusted Bond Index.
Index funds can also track other asset classes, like gold, property, and even alternative assets like Bitcoin.

Funds of funds

A single index typically represents a narrow cross section of the world, likely tracking only companies of a certain size, in a certain region, or a certain asset class. You may need to hold investments tracking multiple indexes in order to have a diversified portfolio across different assets types, company sizes and geographies. Rather than doing this manually, it is also possible to invest directly in a fund of funds. In this case, the fund holds a number of different underlying funds, tracking different indexes. This allows a single fund to have appropriate diversification.
Some examples of these funds of funds, particularly those aimed at passive investors are:
Hopefully this article has helped to explain what an index fund is, and why you might be interested in investing in index funds. The above examples are certainly not a full list of the available indexes and index funds, and you should definitely do further research into which funds are most appropriate for your investment goals.
Good luck with your investment journey!
submitted by jpallen to UKPersonalFinance [link] [comments]

The Decade in Blockchain — 2010 to 2020 in Review

2010

February — The first ever cryptocurrency exchange, Bitcoin Market, is established. The first trade takes place a month later.
April — The first public bitcoin trade takes place: 1000BTC traded for $30 at an exchange rate of 0.03USD/1BTC
May — The first real-world bitcoin transaction is undertaken by Laszlo Hanyecz, who paid 10000BTC for two Papa John’s pizzas (Approximately $25 USD)
June — Bitcoin developer Gavin Andreson creates a faucet offering 5 free BTC to the public
July — First notable usage of the word “blockchain” appears on BitcoinTalk forum. Prior to this, it was referred to as ‘Proof-of-Work chain’
July — Bitcoin exchange named Magic The Gathering Online eXchange—also known as Mt. Gox—established
August —Bitcoin protocol bug leads to emergency hard fork
December — Satoshi Nakamoto ceases communication with the world

2011

January — One-quarter of the eventual total of 21M bitcoins have been generated
February — Bitcoin reaches parity for the first time with USD
April — Bitcoin reaches parity with EUR and GBP
June — WikiLeaks begins accepting Bitcoin donations
June — Mt. Gox hacked, resulting in suspension of trading and a precipitous price drop for Bitcoin
August — First Bitcoin Improvement Proposal: BIP Purpose and Guidelines
October — Litecoin released
December — Bitcoin featured as a major plot element in an episode of ‘The Good Wife’ as 9.45 million viewers watch.

2012

May — Bitcoin Magazine, founded by Mihai Alisie and Vitalik Buterin, publishes first issue
July — Government of Estonia begins incorporating blockchain into digital ID efforts
September — Bitcoin Foundation created
October — BitPay reports having over 1,000 merchants accepting bitcoin under its payment processing service
November — First Bitcoin halving to 25 BTC per block

2013

February — Reddit begins accepting bitcoins for Gold memberships
March — Cyprus government bailout levies bank accounts with over $100k. Flight to Bitcoin results in major price spike.
May —Total Bitcoin value surpasses 1 billion USD with 11M Bitcoin in circulation
May — The first cryptocurrency market rally and crash takes place. Prices rise from $13 to $220, and then drop to $70
June — First major cryptocurrency theft. 25,000 BTC is stolen from Bitcoin forum founder
July — Mastercoin becomes the first project to conduct an ICO
August — U.S. Federal Court issues opinion that Bitcoin is a currency or form of money
October — The FBI shuts down dark web marketplace Silk Road, confiscating approximately 26,000 bitcoins
November — Vitalik Buterin releases the Ethereum White Paper: “A Next-Generation Smart Contract and Decentralized Application Platform
December — The first commit to the Ethereum codebase takes place

2014

January — Vitalik Buterin announces Ethereum at the North American Bitcoin Conference in Miami
February — HMRC in the UK classifies Bitcoin as private money
March — Newsweek claims Dorian Nakamoto is Bitcoin creator. He is not
April — Gavin Wood releases the Ethereum Yellow Paper: “Ethereum: A Secure Decentralised Generalised Transaction Ledger
June — Ethereum Foundation established in Zug, Switzerland
June — US Marshals Service auctions off 30,000 Bitcoin confiscated from Silk Road. All are purchased by venture capitalist Tim Draper
July — Ethereum token launch raises 31,591 BTC ($18,439,086) over 42 days
September — TeraExchange launches first U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission approved Bitcoin over-the-counter swap
October — ConsenSys is founded by Joe Lubin
December — By year’s end, Paypal, Zynga, u/, Expedia, Newegg, Dell, Dish Network, and Microsoft are all accepting Bitcoin for payments

2015

January — Coinbase opens up the first U.S-based cryptocurrency exchange
February — Stripe initiates bitcoin payment integration for merchants
April — NASDAQ initiates blockchain trial
June — NYDFS releases final version of its BitLicense virtual currency regulations
July — Ethereum’s first live mainnet release—Frontier—launched.
August — Augur, the first token launch on the Ethereum network takes place
September — R3 consortium formed with nine financial institutions, increases to over 40 members within six months
October — Gemini exchange launches, founded by Tyler and Cameron Winklevoss
November — Announcement of first zero knowledge proof, ZK-Snarks
December — Linux Foundation establishes Hyperledger project

2016

January — Zcash announced
February — HyperLedger project announced by Linux Foundation with thirty founding members
March — Second Ethereum mainnet release, Homestead, is rolled out.
April — The DAO (decentralized autonomous organization) launches a 28-day crowdsale. After one month, it raises an Ether value of more than US$150M
May — Chinese Financial Blockchain Shenzhen Consortium launches with 31 members
June — The DAO is attacked with 3.6M of the 11.5M Ether in The DAO redirected to the attacker’s Ethereum account
July — The DAO attack results in a hard fork of the Ethereum Blockchain to recover funds. A minority group rejecting the hard fork continues to use the original blockchain renamed Ethereum Classic
July — Second Bitcoin halving to 12.5BTC per block mined
November — CME Launches Bitcoin Price Index

2017

January — Bitcoin price breaks US$1,000 for the first time in three years
February — Enterprise Ethereum Alliance formed with 30 founding members, over 150 members six months later
March — Multiple applications for Bitcoin ETFs rejected by the SEC
April — Bitcoin is officially recognized as currency by Japan
June — EOS begins its year-long ICO, eventually raising $4 billion
July — Parity hack exposes weaknesses in multisig wallets
August — Bitcoin Cash forks from the Bitcoin Network
October — Ethereum releases Byzantium soft fork network upgrade, part one of Metropolis
September — China bans ICOs
October — Bitcoin price surpasses $5,000 USD for the first time
November — Bitcoin price surpasses $10,000 USD for the first time
December — Ethereum Dapp Cryptokitties goes viral, pushing the Ethereum network to its limits

2018


January — Ethereum price peaks near $1400 USD
March — Google bans all ads pertaining to cryptocurrency
March — Twitter bans all ads pertaining to cryptocurrency
April — 2018 outpaces 2017 with $6.3 billion raised in token launches in the first four months of the year
April — EU government commits $300 million to developing blockchain projects
June — The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission states that Ether is not a security.
July — Over 100,000 ERC20 tokens created
August — New York Stock Exchange owner announces Bakkt, a federally regulated digital asset exchange
October — Bitcoin’s 10th birthday
November — VC investment in blockchain tech surpasses $1 billion
December — 90% of banks in the US and Europe report exploration of blockchain tech

2019

January — Coinstar machines begin selling cryptocurrency at grocery stores across the US
February — Ethereum’s Constantinople hard fork is released, part two of Metropolis
April — Bitcoin surpasses 400 million total transactions
June — Facebook announces Libra
July — United States senate holds hearings titled ‘Examining Regulatory Frameworks for Digital Currencies and Blockchain”
August — Ethereum developer dominance reaches 4x that of any other blockchain
October — Over 80 million distinct Ethereum addresses have been created
September — Santander bank settles both sides of a $20 million bond on Ethereum
November — Over 3000 Dapps created. Of them, 2700 are built on Ethereum
submitted by blockstasy to CryptoTechnology [link] [comments]

All of the AMA questions/comments from the darkoverlord re: 9/11 insurance leak extortion here

Q: This doesn't seem like something a group that uses the darkweb would do in public.
A: This is something we do. We can't speak for the others. This is our modus operandi. We like to do everything we can to squeeze every last coin out of our victims. We're financially motivated.
For everyone else asking why we're not dumping it all, we have. It's available to torrent.
Our official Press Release with more info is available here: pastebin.com/4F5R8QyQ
Q: 9.8 gigs seems a lot for just documents. Does it include videos or audio recordings? A: We're withholding anything that isn't text-readable for now.
Q: who did 9/11 in your opinion based on the docs? A: We don't really give a fuck. We want internet money.
We've already released a select few documents to serve as proof of our claims. We're about to change the fucking world. Edward Snowden's NSA leak will be pale in comparison.
Q: (ID: QYsiPYKc) A: When we deal with clients who have PoF, we provide such presentations.
We're quite wealthy, earning hundreds of BTC per year in profit from our systematic cyber-extortion. GCHQ coined that term for us. You can read their advisory about this organisation.
Q: Hi, thedarkoverlord, Have you considered that information may well be used crash the monetary system you hope to be compensated in? A: Fantastic question, mate. We're not concerned about that as we receive our payments only in internet money like Bitcoin. The monetary crash will be your problem. We always advise our clients to diversify and acquire different convertible currencies.
Q: Explain attack vector that lead to initial shell. Web based? Misconfigired service? Well known exploit? A: Nice try, Mandiant.
Q: How? You stated that your intent was to sell it to the highest bidder. That just means that it will get buried. A: We're financially motivated. We're not motivated by saving the planet.
Q: Waiting for overlords dead man switch A: We have several layers of 'dead man's switches' deployed. This is why the entire archive we'd plan to release is freely downloadable now. We're sitting on our high entropy master encryption keys that can be released through even a failure of the organisation.
Q: The thing is, I (and few others) are willing to pay. Provided that OP understands at least basics how such trades are executed. A: We're highly reputable, having sold hundreds of BTC worth of intellectual property, R&D, databases, and more. Our official contact details are in our office Press Release. Please contact us using PGP. We'll happily conform to your requirements to substantiate our loot.
Q: if you DO get paid then we can assume the world's not save because you'd not release them right? A: That's correct. We're not here to save the world. We're here to get paid internet money. We're not motivated by ego or charity, only money.
Q: Hey thedarkoverlord, give us something for free you poofters. A: We already have. Pay attention, fag.
For everyone speaking about the hack of a global insurer, you should understand how sophisticated litigation works. We're sitting on SSI and SCI from TSA, FBI, FAA, USDOJ, and others. Refer to our official PR for more information.
Q: Thoughts on Cicada 3301 and WikiLeaks? particularly who is behind Cicada? A: We don't speculate on other organisations. We focus on ourselves.
Q: Do you have a timeline you can disclose for releasing each layer? A: There is a timeline, but we can't share details about that.
Q: Your group could have chosen to privately auction this info to the same exact bidders you will likely get through these public antics. That makes me question your timing. Why disrupt our system of things and way of life now ( assuming your I do is as world changing as you state)? Why now? A: Tis the season.
Q: I don't give a shit what he wants I'll kick in 20 bucks for anything that peaks my interest one single doc to prove it's not a nothing burger with no strings attached I've been sitting on btc since 50 btc blocks. A: Ff you'd like to be the first person to purchase a single file or two from us, you're welcome to. We'd happily sell you something right now. Our Twitter has our e-mail on it. Get in contact, mate.
Q: what would anyone who is selling world shattering documents for millions of dollars try selling them on 4chan? A: We're not selling anything on 4chan. We're working SEO right now. Google 'thedarkoverlord' and see for yourself. It's driving a tremendous amount of traffic to our content. This is all calculated and pre-arranged.
Q: Fuck yeah based hackerman. I read the release, make those fuckers pay for breaking the deal. They should pay extra just for being so stupid to let you find anything in their network in the first place. Too easy probably, IT people are lazy as fuck. Get paid. A: We've probably hacked your company too.
Q: I'd be willing to chip in with others to see it if I was sure it would be world shaking info. Not something the average person would change the TV when it came up on the news. On a scale of 1-10 how system breaking is the info? A: You're the smart one here, asking the right questions. We'd say it's a 7.5, all things considered. Snowden may have been a 5.5, maybe a 6. More people care about 911 than USA spying. Now, our next release about UFOs, yeah, that's a 10 mate, but it's going to wait until we're done here. If you'd like to buy 911 documents from us, read the answers above.
Anyone can see ample proof on our official PR and our official Twitter @tdo_h4ck3rs. This is quiet real. We'd like to top Edward Snowden. Everyone saying they're coming for us: we know. GCHQ has published advisories about us and the Billings Gazette news publisher leaked the fact that the CIA and NSA event attempted to locate us last year in October after we closed down 50.000 students and 36 schools in an entire region of Montana for 7 days. This is readily available news.
Q: Actually appears legit. On a scale of 1 to 10, how likely do you think it is that your leak could cause a former-sitting president to get lynched? Also, hope your DMS shoots to a Blockchian. A: We'd rather not say, for fear of his safety.
We'll be sharing a few new screencaps momentarily, to stir the pot a bit.
Q: why are you doing ransom instead of exploiting this information for insider trading A: We're experts in systematic cyber-extortion, according to GCHQ. We do what we're best at.
Q: Do you have anything really damaging on Hillary or Obama? A: We're unwilling to answer this question.
Q: Holy kek, FreeBSD is one of the most insecure OS, no joke. A: We utilise Windows Embedded.
Q: That's a bit of a lame answer. Why pick a risky strategy like cyber extortion, when you can stay under the radar, and do insider trading from a beach in Asia? A: We don't discuss out TTPs in public.
Q: So given your financial motivation, is it safe to assume you’re “group” is more anarchy than order? That is to say, are you looking to shift power,take power, or destroy power? A: We're not interested in power, only internet money.
Q: Their answer here will actually clue in their degree of technical competency. I'd add - justify why it will reach this price. A: We haven't shared a price, at all. Depending on what a buyer would like, we adjust our offer.
Q: Iron Mountain is a military base. Why is a WTC Insurer shredding documents on it? A: Great question. We'll direct you to ur official PR which details it. We'll quote the issue for you below:
"When major incidents like the WTC 911 incident happen, part of the litigation must involve SSI (Sensitive Security Information) and SCI (Special Compartment Information) from the likes of the FBI, CIA, TSA, FAA, DOD, and others being introduced into evidence, but of course this can't become public, for fear of compromising a nation's security, so they temporarily release these materials to the solicitor firms involved in the litigation with the strict demand they're destroyed after their use and that remain highly protected and confidential to only be used behind closed doors. However, humans aren't perfect and many of these documents don't become destroyed, and when thedarkoverlord comes along hacking all these solicitor firms, investment banks, and global insurers, we stumble upon the juiciest secrets a government has to offer."
Q: Hey do you take hack requests? I have a couple of bitcoins... A: Visit our official Twitter @tdo_h4ck3rs where our contact details are readily available. We operate on a strict protocol and often times require bonding.
Q: why leak on new years eve A: Because it forces about a dozen Fortune 500 companies in the UK and USA to build damage control and COA plans on their New Years holiday, robbing them of any pleasure and bringing in their new year at a new low.
Q: if i purchase the doc's, whats stopping me uploading it everywhere? will you guys get annoyed? A: Once we're paid, they're yours. You do as we you wish. We couldn't care any less.
Q: yeah has there been any strange shit happening that makes you think they're on to you or that you've being targetted already? A: Other than them telling victims to pay us because it's the best move to save their arses, we sleep like babies.
Q: Likes,kind of a career ending big heist, don't you think? A: We already live like the ending of a great heist movie, on warm beaches with loads of internet money. We're quite happy.
Q: Why do you care about their pleasure or them starting new year at all time low, thought this was all just business? A: It's all business. Psychologically, they're most vulnerable when this process is used and it resutls in higher success rates for us.
Q: Apparently the guy they caught was in Serbia. A: A complete random stranger.
Q: The question about crypto was good, do you have any predictions about BTC next year and do you think it's still the best currency to invest in? A: We predict we'll earn even more BTC. As our clients are paying us while we have them bent over a barrel, we always advise them to buy up for their personal portfolios.
Q: Do you have a deadman set up A: We do.
submitted by jdennis187 to conspiracy [link] [comments]

ETH News/Dapp Compilation

Hi guys. This is a list I started just recently for personal use to keep track of all the great news we’ve gotten recently for Ethereum. I’m trying my best to categorize the articles by either what type of industry ETH is helping, or how ETH is being helped (Infrastructure section).
It is in no way a comprehensive list and I’d like to open it up to everyone here to contribute/pick apart. I’ve got an idea for basically an “onboarding packet” for Ethereum that will include a rundown of all this stuff, some defi growth stats, list of popular dapps, user guide for Metamask (None of which will come from me but will be compiled all into one place for the benefit of newbs).
I think any non-believer who reads all of the articles in this list, or even just the snippets I included, would be hard pressed to say “ETH isn’t used” or “crypto is a scam” …unless they are just a total moron. Apologies for bad formatting.
Charity/utilitarianism:
https://www.coindesk.com/oxfam-trials-delivery-of-disaster-relief-using-ethereum-stablecoin-dai “Oxfam has previously distributed help to Vanuatu villagers using cash, but the time taken for ID checks and bank visits was an obstacle, the charity representative said. Onboarding a new user for cash aid took around an hour, signing up for a DAI card takes six minutes, Micky wrote. Plus, it made the whole process more transparent.”
Infrastructure:
http://hitcryptonews.com/2019/04/17/ernst-young-ey-unveils-ethereum-blockchain-based-nightfall-protocol/
private UK tax/audit company with over 35 Billion in revenue "Instead of developing a private iteration, EY has announced that its Nightfall protocol will run on top of the public Ethereum network. Further, the multi-national accounting conglomerate has taken a unique strategy to intellectual property. The company said that it will not only open-source the protocol code but also put it in the public domain with absolutely no license at all."
https://blog.cloudflare.com/cloudflare-ethereum-gateway/
"Today, as part of Crypto Week 2019, we are excited to announce Cloudflare's Ethereum Gateway, where you can interact with the Ethereum network without installing any additional software on your computer."
https://www.coindesk.com/microsoft-ethereum-group-launch-token-building-kit-for-enterprises Microsoft launches a kit for businesses to build their own public Ethereum tokens.
https://www.coindesk.com/samsung-unveils-cryptocurrency-wallet-dapps-for-galaxy-s10-phone
“According to a report from CoinDesk Korea published Sunday, the Samsung Blockchain Wallet is currently compatible only with ether (ETH) and ethereum-based ERC20 tokens. Bitcoin is not yet supported, despite the logo appearing on earlier pre-release presentation images.”
https://www.coindesk.com/operas-browser-with-built-in-crypto-wallet-launches-for-iphones
“Dapps can be accessed by typing their address directly in the browser, avoiding the need to use third-party extensions” https://www.bitcoinisle.com/2019/04/05/ethereum-eth-former-white-house-deputy-ctos-blockchain-startup-raises-3-7m-in-seed-funding/ Former whitehouse Chief Technology Officer raising money for an Ethereum side-chain. The chain WILL use the public chain as a final authority, so not just another private chain.
https://cointelegraph.com/news/big-four-auditing-firm-pwc-releases-cryptocurrency-auditing-software
Per the release, the tool newly added to PwC’s Halo auditing suite can be used to “provide assurance services for entities engaging in cryptocurrency transactions.” The firm claims that, with the new addition, the Halo suite permits PwC to provide independent evidence of private-public key pairing (to establish crypto asset ownership), and gather information about transactions and balances from blockchains.
Supply Chain/Logistics:
https://decrypt.co/7621/farmer-trials-blockchain-supply-chain-app-says-its-better-than-excel
“With a spreadsheet, you have to take the farmers’ word on faith. But Treum provides a timestamp and a geolocation—tied to a specific, pre-selected field—that demonstrates, irrevocably, that the crop was grown where the farmer said it was grown. This data is then transferred, in the form of a single token, to the Ethereum network, where it cannot be overwritten.”
https://www.thedrinksbusiness.com/2019/06/idealwine-launches-authentication-tool/
"Cyrille Jomand, iDealwine’s CEO, said: “Bottles verified by iDealwine are equipped with an inviolable RFID TAG which permanently guarantees the link between the bottle of wine and the information contained and transferred in the blockchain.”
Finance:
https://www.forbes.com/sites/hanktucke2019/06/17/polish-bank-alior-uses-public-ethereum-blockchain-for-new-document-authentication-feature/#120959f244a6
"Societe Generale, a major French investment bank, issued a $112 million bond in security tokens on the public ethereum blockchain in April, but Alior’s management believes it is the first bank to use a public blockchain for a direct customer service solution"
"Customers can search documents they have received on Alior’s servers and browse their history to find where those documents are located on the (Ethereum) blockchain to ensure that they have not been changed by the bank since they were published."
http://fintechnews.sg/31826/blockchain/worlds-first-traditional-equity-shares-on-the-blockchain-blueshare-launches-in-singapore/ The token/share ratio is 1:1, meaning that 1 security token is backed by 1 Equity Capital Participation Share. Investments are accepted both in fiat and cryptocurrencies – Euro, Bitcoin, Ether, and Tether. The token sale started on May 6, 2019. The funds raised under the proposed security token offering will be used as a direct investment into the company’s mining and exploration concessions.
https://finance.yahoo.com/news/iceland-financial-regulator-approves-blockchain-190100164.html "Reykjavik-based Monerium, backed by blockchain software company ConsenSys, has reportedly been approved by the Icelandic financial watchdog to provide fiat payment services using ethereum (ETH) blockchain"
https://www.forbes.com/sites/stevenehrlich/2019/06/19/metlife-plans-to-disrupt-2-7-trillion-life-insurance-industry-using-ethereum-blockchain/#1dd36d002770 MetLife is utilizing the live public Ethereum blockchain to add transparency and efficiency to the claims process. In what is believed to be the first pilot program in the world focused on the life insurance industry, MetLife’s Singapore-based incubator LumenLab is collaborating with Singapore Press Holdings (SPH) and NTUC Income (Income) on a platform of smart contracts known as ‘Lifechain’ to help loved ones quickly determine if the deceased was protected with a policy and automatically file a claim.
Novelty/Games/Collectibles:
https://en.businesstimes.cn/articles/113719/20190614/ubisoft-may-soon-have-ethereum-in-game-items-and-blockchain-games.htm "The associate manager at Ubisoft, Anne Puck, added: "We think that blockchain has the potential to transform the gaming experience and even maybe to empower players as true stakeholders in their worlds. That's why our job is to accelerate the integration of blockchain at Ubisoft with this initiative." Ubisoft will likely enable in-game or in-app purchases via the Ethereum network. It is worth noting that the company has not clearly stated that any form of digital currency will be used for any such purchases. "
https://finance.yahoo.com/news/austria-post-launches-crypto-stamp-132010928.html "The “Crypto Stamp” is the first use case for non-fungible tokens launched by a government so far, making it a milestone. The pilot’s success will help determine the future for NFTs, which can now be issued across multiple Ethereum token standards."
https://coinjournal.net/japans-first-blockchain-game-crypt-oink-expands-to-english-speaking-markets-partners-with-cryptokitties/ "Created by Japan-based developer Good Luck 3, Crypt-Oink is a decentralized application (DApp) running on the Ethereum network. The game lets users breed, collect and trade digital racing pigs called Cryptons."
Data/Identity Management:
https://www.forbes.com/sites/rachelwolfson/2019/06/25/ibm-orbs-consensys-work-together-on-global-blockchain-settlement-platform-for-telecoms/#498d66c4782c “In particular for this project, we propose solutions for the "transaction orchestration layer," and decentralized identities for participants in the network, solutions that have already been deployed successfully on Ethereum, and can integrate with other DLTs."
List of actually useful/cool Ethereum Apps(Some are Dapps others just involve ETH):
https://app.compound.finance/# Lending/borrowing ETH and ETH tokens. No fixed lending periods and interest is generated in real time (Every block I think– roughly ten seconds)
https://cdp.makerdao.com/ Mint DAI against your Ether.
https://www.augur.net/ Create a betting market for anything you can imagine. Use https://predictions.global/ to view current markets without downloading the client.
https://kyberswap.com Trade ETH tokens right from your Metamask account without having to deposit/withdrawal to an exchange.
https://godsunchained.com/ Buy trading cards for the first AAA quality hearthstone-esque Ethereum card game where your cards are tokens in your wallet and are freely tradeable (Or at least they will be once the game is out of Beta…)
https://trade.dydx.exchange/ Decentralized leverage trading right from your Metamask wallet.
Other Utilities and Resources:
https://etherscan.io Block explorer. Use this to check out your ETH address, smart contract addresses, spy on whales addresses, etc.
https://www.ethgasstation.info/ Check current gas prices and transaction speeds.
https://github.com/ethereumbook/ethereumbook This is the github version of “Mastering Ethereum” Which goes over the basics of how Ethereum works with smart contracts and nodes and whatnot. It’s actually easier to follow along with than you’d think. Can also buy the PDF version on Amazon.
submitted by hello_again_world to ethtrader [link] [comments]

BitMax.io(BTMX.io)News Digest 2019 09 23

Major Headlines
  1. Bitcoin falls as futures exchange makes its trading debut
  2. Weekends are for altcoins when it comes to crypto market gains
  3. Google’s quantum “breakthrough” won’t destroy Bitcoin. Not yet.
  4. CoinShares Enlists Customers to Lobby Against UK Ban of Crypto ETN
  5. Bakkt Is Finally Launching Its Bitcoin Futures Today. Here’s What to Expect
  6. Crypto Exchange Giant Binance to Launch US Trading Tuesday
  7. IBM Says It’s Ready to Work with Facebook on Blockchain
  8. PBoC Denies Claims It Will Launch Digital Currency in November
Takeaway
  1. Bitcoin falls as futures exchange makes its trading debut
(All citations are taken from Bloomberg)
· The price of Bitcoin slumped 2.4% to $9,892 as 38 of the futures contracts offered on the Intercontinental exchange inc.’s Bakkt platform had changed hands.
· ICE highlighted the plan in part as a way for merchants to adopt cryptocurrencies as a payment method.
· First hurdle is to get enough traders to use its Bitcoin features.
  1. Weekends are for altcoins when it comes to crypto market gains
(All citations are taken from Bloomberg)
· Ether has bested Bitcoin in terms of daily percentage gains and has outperformed the largest digital currency in eight of the last 12 weekends.
· XRP has also gained over the past month while Bitcoin drops 5%
· Partner of JST Capital says Altcoins will continue to catch up and come to fruition at some level where the value proposition is being recognized more broadly.
  1. Google’s quantum “breakthrough” won’t destroy Bitcoin. Not yet.
(All citations are taken from CNN)
· The promise of an emerging era of quantum computing seemingly became a reality as Google released a new scientific paper.
· Known as Shor’s algorithm, the calculation enables the extraction of the private key from any public key.
· Currently, cryptographically secured public keys are the only safeguard standing in the way between users’ fund and financial ruin.
  1. CoinShares Enlists Customers to Lobby Against UK Ban of Crypto ETN
(All citations are taken from coindesk)
· Investment platform CoinShares is urging its customers to lobby the UK’s Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) over impending crypto asset regulations.
· In a letter to investors sent today, CoinShares has asked its customers to write emails and text messages to the UK regulator in support of one of its premiere products, exchange-traded notes (ETNs), which would be banned under the proposed regulation for retail investors.
· Similar to a bond, ETNs provide investors with returns based on a market benchmark such as the S&P 500. CoinShares offers exchange-traded products for bitcoin, ethereum, litecoin, and XRP.
  1. Bakkt Is Finally Launching Its Bitcoin Futures Today. Here’s What to Expect
(All citations are taken from coindesk)
· Bakkt, the Intercontinental Exchange-backed bitcoin warehouse and futures contract facilitator is launching Monday, opening the door for institutional investors to take positions on the cryptocurrency in a federally regulated venue.
· Bakkt’s futures will be physically settled. And according to the daily contract’s specifications, the bitcoin will be delivered on the second business day after the contract’s date.
· While Bakkt is also offering a 30-day bitcoin futures contract, the one-day version will essentially allow institutions to buy or sell bitcoin in a way that’s more familiar to them than the helter-skelter world of crypto exchanges.
  1. Crypto Exchange Giant Binance to Launch US Trading Tuesday
(All citations are taken from coindesk)
· Binance.US, the American arm of cryptocurrency exchange giant Binance, has announced it will start trading fiat-crypto and crypto-crypto trading pairs on Tuesday.
· The trading platform will list seven cryptocurrencies immediately upon the launch, including bitcoin, Binance coin (BNB), ethereum, XRP, bitcoin cash, litecoin and Tether’s USDT.
· The move is part of a larger expansion by Binance, which launched a fiat-to-crypto exchange on the island of Jersey, a British self-governing dependency in January.
  1. IBM Says It’s Ready to Work with Facebook on Blockchain
(All citations are taken from coindesk)
· IBM is willing to team up with Facebook to develop blockchain technology, an IBM executive said, explaining that developing the blockchain ecosystem is “a team sport.”
· IBM has been focused on developing its patented Stellar blockchain to facilitate cross-border payments and launched the World Wire, an international payments system that uses Stellar.
· World Wire aims to skip banking intermediaries that add complexity and cost to the traditional international payments systems by replacing them with digital assets sent over a distributed network.
  1. PBoC Denies Claims It Will Launch Digital Currency in November
(All citations are taken from coindesk)
· China’s central bank has denied recent reports that it will launch its national digital currency in November.
· News reports had also suggested that major banks ICBC, the Bank of China and the Agricultural Bank of China, as well as Alibaba, Tencent and UnionPay, would act as outlets for the digital yuan.
· The digital currency is not planned to replace the yuan and would be used in the retail sector and for payments like cash, the PBoC added.
(The contents above are all cited from corresponding websites, and don’t represent the opinion of BitMax.io platform)
submitted by o2ziga to BitMax [link] [comments]

SERO (super zero)

SUPER ZERO(SERO)
The global leading privacy protecting platform Making decentralized applications truly Secure, Private and Stable
The Internet has greatly enhanced the efficiency of information dissemination, which benefits Human society; on the other hand, lack of privacy becomes more of a serious problem. Blockchain is considered a great tool to protect privacy. However, since all the transactions are recorded on the public blockchain, once the identity of the wallet holder gets uncovered, this loss of privacy is irreversible. The scenario leads to a more serious problem than the privacy disclosure of the Internet. For this reason, cryptographers and top technical experts in the blockchain industry have made relentless efforts to resolve the issue. Several teams in the industry have developed special cryptocurrencies to protect privacy, which are called "anonymous currencies". Some of the best-known anonymous currencies are Zcash (ZEC), Monero (XMR), and Dash. These cryptocurrencies with a certain degree of privacy protection, have obtained high market values based on the vast demand and have been ranked among the world's top 20 cryptocurrencies for a long time; thus, indicating a strong demand for privacy protection in the blockchain industry.
Smart contract is a computer protocol designed to distribute, verify or execute contracts in an information-based way. Turing complete smart contract system on the blockchain allows developers to write any complicated contract that lives on the blockchain and can be executed on the blockchain. Developers can use smart contract development language to produce functions such as custom token, financial derivatives, identity system, and decentralized organization, therefore, greatly expanding the application scope of the blockchain system. Smart contract is one of the foundational bases of the Internet of Value. The current shortcoming is that none of the blockchain systems support encryption and privacy protection of smart contracts. The existing use scenarios of privacy protection mechanisms are greatly reduced due to the technical limitation. Blockchain 1.0 technology originated from Bitcoin invented by Satoshi Nakamoto, has created a new paradigm. With the advent of Ethereum – blockchain 2.0, the invention of smart contracts makes the blockchain technology accessible, and the Distributed Applications (DAPPs) based on the blockchain technology more feasible, allowing blockchain technology to be applicable to more industries. Zcash and Monero which do not support smart contracts are privacy protection scheme 1.0; privacy protection scheme 2.0 that supports smart contracts is expected to be implemented in more industries and application scenarios.
There is no doubt about the high technical threshold required for developing anonymous cryptocurrencies that support smart contracts, and there are only few teams in the world who are tackling this problem. The official release of Super Zero (SERO) to the world presents the first anonymous cryptocurrency that supports smart contracts. The SERO's R&D team (SERO Team) is the only team in the world that presents a complete solution to solve the Privacy problem and has completed major R&D work. SERO team not only considers the privacy of DAPP Users' accounts and transactions but also fully considers privacy protection of DAPPs’ developers, making privacy protection of the DAPP Ecosystem truly secure and stable.
SERO team has assembled a 3 in 1 suite that can provide a complete privacy protection solution for DAPPs; including advanced innovative technology components SERO (privacy cryptocurrencies platform supporting smart contracts), ALIEN protocol (a protocol that can solve security problems within the transmission of information in decentralized networks) and CASTROL protocol (a protocol that protects decentralized networks and provides privacy protection for every node in the Internet). The white paper describes SERO's work and includes core information about the project as well as the disclosure of subsequent project plans.
At present, users have an increasing concern and demand for privacy protection; many wellknown companies have leaked a large number of user privacy data, including Yahoo, Uber, PayPal, InterContinental Hotels Group, US credit agency Equifax, UK National Health Service System(NHS) etc., compromising tens of millions to hundreds of millions of user data. Facebook lost tens of billions of dollars in market value in two days due to one of the largest privacy leaks in March 2018. The issue of privacy has also attracted the attention of many governments; the European Union took the lead in promulgating the General Data Protection Regulations (GDPR) to urge companies to effectively protect users' privacy
Majority of the privacy leaks in the Internet application scenarios are caused by the lack of adequate data security protection mechanisms in a centralized platform. Blockchain technology is thought to be able to prevent such incidents. The design of blockchain networks such as Bitcoin and Ethereum didn’t take into account the possibility of the link established between the wallet and physical identity. The extremely sensitive information such as digital assets and their transaction records in the blockchain is transparent to public and cannot be tampered with. If blockchain is used in a larger number of real scenarios, the transparency is undoubtedly unacceptable for most users.
The range of legal use cases of financial privacy is very wide. Financial privacy protection is needed for most transactions in the world. It is unreasonable to expose cryptocurrencies' assets and transactions data stored on the blockchain to the public. Examples of real-world scenarios:
* A company wants to protect supply chain information without revealing it to the competitors.
* An individual does not want the public knowledge of paying for consultation with a bankruptcy lawyer or divorce lawyer.
*A family, fearing discrimination, wants to withhold children’s medical history from employers and colleagues.
*A wealthy individual preventing potential criminals from gaining access to his whereabouts to prevent extortion.
* Commodity buyers and sellers want to avoid the transaction being cut off by any middlemen.
* Investment banks, hedge funds and other types of entities dealing with trading financial instruments (securities, bonds, derivatives); protecting their positions or trading intentions.
In smart contracts, the entire sequence of actions is distributed through the network and recorded on the blockchain and is publicly visible. Individuals and organizations believe financial transactions (such as insurance contracts or stock transactions) are highly confidential; however, this need for the information privacy protection is not currently supported. The lack of privacy becomes the main obstacle to the widespread adoption of decentralized smart contracts. The lack of privacy protection technology is a serious bottleneck for the popularization of DAPPs. The technological development progress in related fields has attracted public attention.
Bitcoin network is a typical blockchain technology representative. Mainstream cryptocurrencies in the market are mostly based on the same technical features. The following uses Bitcoin network as an example to analyze the risk of privacy leakage.
The left side of equation (1) is the message sent by the sender to the intermediary, and the right side is the message sent to the receiver after the information is processed by the intermediary. The sender wants to send the messages Z0 and m to the address A of the receiver. First, the message encrypts with the key CA of the receiver to obtain CA(Z0, m), then packages the authentication message Z1 of the intermediary. The encrypted message CA(Z0, m) and the address A of the receiver, then encrypts with the public key CM of the intermediary to prevent the information from being intercepted or tampered with by attackers during the sending process. After receiving the information, the intermediary decrypts it with his private key to get Z1, CA(Z0, m), A, but is unable to decrypt the content of CA(Z0, m). The intermediary sends CA(Z0, m) to address A after verifying Z1 is correct. The receiver then decrypts the message using its own private key to complete the communication.
CM(Z1,CA(Z0,m),A)→CA(Z0,m),A(1)
Messages are not directly transmitted between the sender and the receiver, instead, the messages are transmitted indirectly through an intermediary, making it impossible for attackers to observe the communication behavior between the sender and receiver, thus, improving the anonymity of the communication. If the message is passed through multiple intermediaries, for the difficulty for attackers to discover the communication relationship between the sender and receiver increases.
The mixed currency mechanism in cryptocurrencies draws from the above methods ( Dash and Monero ) and removes the traceable relationship between the actual sender and receiver in the transaction through an intermediate hierarchy. The implementation of the currency mixing process can be implemented by a trusted third-party or other protocol. A third-party node is involved in the currency mixing process, the existing currency mixing mechanisms can be divided into two categories: the central node and the decentralized node. The two mechanisms have their own advantages and disadvantages in terms of currency mixing reliability, efficiency and cost.
The privacy protection technologies of decentralized network in the existing market do not combine with decentralized applications; particularly, the implementation of smart contracts is not protected. The sequence of actions performed in the smart contract is publicly visible throughout the network and / or recorded on the blockchain platform. In Turing complete blockchain network, SERO’s design must meet several basic principles as well as meet the system's capacity requirements:
Un-traceable - every transaction in the blockchain network has an input and an output; constructing an acyclic graph of transactions, on which all of the transaction flows can be tracked, all of the transaction sequences can be concatenated and traced. SERO is designed to break the link between the two transactions, making the attack impossible
Un-associable - each user in the blockchain network has their own collection address. Once the address is associated with the real user identity, all the transactions occurring at the address in the network can be associated with the corresponding user identity, resulting in the exposure of the associated behaviors to the address. All the transactions and balances are still publicly visible when a user creates a new pseudonym public key for anonymity. SERO uses encryption technology to make the payment address unrelated.
Anti-statistical analysis - actual user behavior has statistical characteristics. If the transaction data in the blockchain network has a correlation that reflect such statistical characteristics, it is possible to deduce the addresses belongs to a specific user through statistical analysis of the blockchain data. When ring signatures are used, the ability to resist statistical analysis will decrease if ring members or nodes are malicious. SERO must be able to completely hide the address and the relationship between addresses by technological means.
Practicality principles - SERO, while hiding the transaction data, will not take all the information into its scope, which can be uneconomical and inefficient. SERO will consider the user's existing usage habits and concerns to carry out research and development periodically.
Optional auditing solution - for the alternative audit scheme and certain complex business applications, the user may choose a trusted third-party to conduct financial audit of transactions. The user should have the ability to give the third-party to track the specific information from the transactions.
IMPLEMENTATION PLAN
In the first phase, SERO will completely protect the inputs and outputs of the trading system and the trading details through non-interactive zero-knowledge proof (NIZK). The transaction details are invisible to everyone except the two parties involved. SERO will maintain the smart contracts running on the chain and integrate the assets generated by the smart contracts with SERO's own trading system, considering that the online running smart contracts and the total number of open contracts issued assets have universal applicability. This will enable the privacy of the assets generated by the smart contract.
In the second phase, within the smart contracts running online, SERO will provide a latent structure called Hidden Data Structure(HDS) to satisfy the requirement for the total number of issued assets with protected contracts. The calculations for the HDS complete off the chain. The function will protect the total number of contractually issued assets.
In the third phase, SERO will adopt a more advanced consensus mechanism to improve the throughput of SERO networks. At the same time, SERO will decompose the operation of the contract into two steps: offline calculation and online verification. The offline calculation will fully understand the calculation rules and data, and will return the encrypted result. When the result is submitted online, the online node will only validate the result and determine whether the data conforms to the calculation rules; the node will not know the details of the data and calculation rules.
SERO PROTOCOL
Accounts are divided into two categories: user account and contract account. The user account is a 32-byte selected by the user, the contract account generates a 64-byte corresponding to the smart contract environment the user installed; both categories are unique and non-repeatable.
The user account can generate a 64-byte private key and a 64-byte public key , as the user's payment address. When installing or invoking the smart contract, the wallet will generate a temporary address according to the current condition. The temporary address cannot be associated with the user's private key and public key and will only be used once.
When the smart contract is installed, the wallet will change the temporary address to a 64 byte smart contract address ( ) in accordance with the current condition. As the node receives the address, it needs to ensure that the contract address has not appeared before.
submitted by locotoni to BountyICO [link] [comments]

SUPER ZERO(SERO) https://sero.cash/ #Bounty #SERO #Privacy #Blockchain

SUPER ZERO(SERO) https://sero.cash/ #Bounty #SERO #Privacy #Blockchain
SUPER ZERO(SERO)

The global leading privacy protecting platform Making decentralized applications truly Secure, Private and Stable

The Internet has greatly enhanced the efficiency of information dissemination, which benefits Human society; on the other hand, lack of privacy becomes more of a serious problem. Blockchain is considered a great tool to protect privacy. However, since all the transactions are recorded on the public blockchain, once the identity of the wallet holder gets uncovered, this loss of privacy is irreversible. The scenario leads to a more serious problem than the privacy disclosure of the Internet. For this reason, cryptographers and top technical experts in the blockchain industry have made relentless efforts to resolve the issue. Several teams in the industry have developed special cryptocurrencies to protect privacy, which are called "anonymous currencies". Some of the best-known anonymous currencies are Zcash (ZEC), Monero (XMR), and Dash. These cryptocurrencies with a certain degree of privacy protection, have obtained high market values based on the vast demand and have been ranked among the world's top 20 cryptocurrencies for a long time; thus, indicating a strong demand for privacy protection in the blockchain industry.

Smart contract is a computer protocol designed to distribute, verify or execute contracts in an information-based way. Turing complete smart contract system on the blockchain allows developers to write any complicated contract that lives on the blockchain and can be executed on the blockchain. Developers can use smart contract development language to produce functions such as custom token, financial derivatives, identity system, and decentralized organization, therefore, greatly expanding the application scope of the blockchain system. Smart contract is one of the foundational bases of the Internet of Value. The current shortcoming is that none of the blockchain systems support encryption and privacy protection of smart contracts. The existing use scenarios of privacy protection mechanisms are greatly reduced due to the technical limitation. Blockchain 1.0 technology originated from Bitcoin invented by Satoshi Nakamoto, has created a new paradigm. With the advent of Ethereum – blockchain 2.0, the invention of smart contracts makes the blockchain technology accessible, and the Distributed Applications (DAPPs) based on the blockchain technology more feasible, allowing blockchain technology to be applicable to more industries. Zcash and Monero which do not support smart contracts are privacy protection scheme 1.0; privacy protection scheme 2.0 that supports smart contracts is expected to be implemented in more industries and application scenarios.

There is no doubt about the high technical threshold required for developing anonymous cryptocurrencies that support smart contracts, and there are only few teams in the world who are tackling this problem. The official release of Super Zero (SERO) to the world presents the first anonymous cryptocurrency that supports smart contracts. The SERO's R&D team (SERO Team) is the only team in the world that presents a complete solution to solve the Privacy problem and has completed major R&D work. SERO team not only considers the privacy of DAPP Users' accounts and transactions but also fully considers privacy protection of DAPPs’ developers, making privacy protection of the DAPP Ecosystem truly secure and stable.

SERO team has assembled a 3 in 1 suite that can provide a complete privacy protection solution for DAPPs; including advanced innovative technology components SERO (privacy cryptocurrencies platform supporting smart contracts), ALIEN protocol (a protocol that can solve security problems within the transmission of information in decentralized networks) and CASTROL protocol (a protocol that protects decentralized networks and provides privacy protection for every node in the Internet). The white paper describes SERO's work and includes core information about the project as well as the disclosure of subsequent project plans.

At present, users have an increasing concern and demand for privacy protection; many wellknown companies have leaked a large number of user privacy data, including Yahoo, Uber, PayPal, InterContinental Hotels Group, US credit agency Equifax, UK National Health Service System(NHS) etc., compromising tens of millions to hundreds of millions of user data. Facebook lost tens of billions of dollars in market value in two days due to one of the largest privacy leaks in March 2018. The issue of privacy has also attracted the attention of many governments; the European Union took the lead in promulgating the General Data Protection Regulations (GDPR) to urge companies to effectively protect users' privacy

Majority of the privacy leaks in the Internet application scenarios are caused by the lack of adequate data security protection mechanisms in a centralized platform. Blockchain technology is thought to be able to prevent such incidents. The design of blockchain networks such as Bitcoin and Ethereum didn’t take into account the possibility of the link established between the wallet and physical identity. The extremely sensitive information such as digital assets and their transaction records in the blockchain is transparent to public and cannot be tampered with. If blockchain is used in a larger number of real scenarios, the transparency is undoubtedly unacceptable for most users.

The range of legal use cases of financial privacy is very wide. Financial privacy protection is needed for most transactions in the world. It is unreasonable to expose cryptocurrencies' assets and transactions data stored on the blockchain to the public. Examples of real-world scenarios:
* A company wants to protect supply chain information without revealing it to the competitors.
* An individual does not want the public knowledge of paying for consultation with a bankruptcy lawyer or divorce lawyer.
*A family, fearing discrimination, wants to withhold children’s medical history from employers and colleagues.
*A wealthy individual preventing potential criminals from gaining access to his whereabouts to prevent extortion.
* Commodity buyers and sellers want to avoid the transaction being cut off by any middlemen.
* Investment banks, hedge funds and other types of entities dealing with trading financial instruments (securities, bonds, derivatives); protecting their positions or trading intentions.

In smart contracts, the entire sequence of actions is distributed through the network and recorded on the blockchain and is publicly visible. Individuals and organizations believe financial transactions (such as insurance contracts or stock transactions) are highly confidential; however, this need for the information privacy protection is not currently supported. The lack of privacy becomes the main obstacle to the widespread adoption of decentralized smart contracts. The lack of privacy protection technology is a serious bottleneck for the popularization of DAPPs. The technological development progress in related fields has attracted public attention.


Bitcoin network is a typical blockchain technology representative. Mainstream cryptocurrencies in the market are mostly based on the same technical features. The following uses Bitcoin network as an example to analyze the risk of privacy leakage.


The left side of equation (1) is the message sent by the sender to the intermediary, and the right side is the message sent to the receiver after the information is processed by the intermediary. The sender wants to send the messages Z0 and m to the address A of the receiver. First, the message encrypts with the key CA of the receiver to obtain CA(Z0, m), then packages the authentication message Z1 of the intermediary. The encrypted message CA(Z0, m) and the address A of the receiver, then encrypts with the public key CM of the intermediary to prevent the information from being intercepted or tampered with by attackers during the sending process. After receiving the information, the intermediary decrypts it with his private key to get Z1, CA(Z0, m), A, but is unable to decrypt the content of CA(Z0, m). The intermediary sends CA(Z0, m) to address A after verifying Z1 is correct. The receiver then decrypts the message using its own private key to complete the communication.

CM(Z1,CA(Z0,m),A)→CA(Z0,m),A(1)

Messages are not directly transmitted between the sender and the receiver, instead, the messages are transmitted indirectly through an intermediary, making it impossible for attackers to observe the communication behavior between the sender and receiver, thus, improving the anonymity of the communication. If the message is passed through multiple intermediaries, for the difficulty for attackers to discover the communication relationship between the sender and receiver increases.

The mixed currency mechanism in cryptocurrencies draws from the above methods ( Dash and Monero ) and removes the traceable relationship between the actual sender and receiver in the transaction through an intermediate hierarchy. The implementation of the currency mixing process can be implemented by a trusted third-party or other protocol. A third-party node is involved in the currency mixing process, the existing currency mixing mechanisms can be divided into two categories: the central node and the decentralized node. The two mechanisms have their own advantages and disadvantages in terms of currency mixing reliability, efficiency and cost.



The privacy protection technologies of decentralized network in the existing market do not combine with decentralized applications; particularly, the implementation of smart contracts is not protected. The sequence of actions performed in the smart contract is publicly visible throughout the network and / or recorded on the blockchain platform. In Turing complete blockchain network, SERO’s design must meet several basic principles as well as meet the system's capacity requirements:

Un-traceable - every transaction in the blockchain network has an input and an output; constructing an acyclic graph of transactions, on which all of the transaction flows can be tracked, all of the transaction sequences can be concatenated and traced. SERO is designed to break the link between the two transactions, making the attack impossible

Un-associable - each user in the blockchain network has their own collection address. Once the address is associated with the real user identity, all the transactions occurring at the address in the network can be associated with the corresponding user identity, resulting in the exposure of the associated behaviors to the address. All the transactions and balances are still publicly visible when a user creates a new pseudonym public key for anonymity. SERO uses encryption technology to make the payment address unrelated.

Anti-statistical analysis - actual user behavior has statistical characteristics. If the transaction data in the blockchain network has a correlation that reflect such statistical characteristics, it is possible to deduce the addresses belongs to a specific user through statistical analysis of the blockchain data. When ring signatures are used, the ability to resist statistical analysis will decrease if ring members or nodes are malicious. SERO must be able to completely hide the address and the relationship between addresses by technological means.

Practicality principles - SERO, while hiding the transaction data, will not take all the information into its scope, which can be uneconomical and inefficient. SERO will consider the user's existing usage habits and concerns to carry out research and development periodically.

Optional auditing solution - for the alternative audit scheme and certain complex business applications, the user may choose a trusted third-party to conduct financial audit of transactions. The user should have the ability to give the third-party to track the specific information from the transactions.

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN


In the first phase, SERO will completely protect the inputs and outputs of the trading system and the trading details through non-interactive zero-knowledge proof (NIZK). The transaction details are invisible to everyone except the two parties involved. SERO will maintain the smart contracts running on the chain and integrate the assets generated by the smart contracts with SERO's own trading system, considering that the online running smart contracts and the total number of open contracts issued assets have universal applicability. This will enable the privacy of the assets generated by the smart contract.

In the second phase, within the smart contracts running online, SERO will provide a latent structure called Hidden Data Structure(HDS) to satisfy the requirement for the total number of issued assets with protected contracts. The calculations for the HDS complete off the chain. The function will protect the total number of contractually issued assets.

In the third phase, SERO will adopt a more advanced consensus mechanism to improve the throughput of SERO networks. At the same time, SERO will decompose the operation of the contract into two steps: offline calculation and online verification. The offline calculation will fully understand the calculation rules and data, and will return the encrypted result. When the result is submitted online, the online node will only validate the result and determine whether the data conforms to the calculation rules; the node will not know the details of the data and calculation rules.


SERO PROTOCOL

Accounts are divided into two categories: user account and contract account. The user account is a 32-byte selected by the user, the contract account generates a 64-byte corresponding to the smart contract environment the user installed; both categories are unique and non-repeatable.

The user account can generate a 64-byte private key and a 64-byte public key , as the user's payment address. When installing or invoking the smart contract, the wallet will generate a temporary address according to the current condition. The temporary address cannot be associated with the user's private key and public key and will only be used once.

When the smart contract is installed, the wallet will change the temporary address to a 64 byte smart contract address ( ) in accordance with the current condition. As the node receives the address, it needs to ensure that the contract address has not appeared before.


https://preview.redd.it/u5xrk8fall131.jpg?width=256&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=9fa6d0a8ea29408b9b9b5c8dc04d16dc26cdcdfd

In SERO’s Alpha and Beta networks, in order to ensure the healthy development of the network at the initial stage, to ensure the robustness of the consensus and the timeliness of system updates, it is necessary for SERO project team to coordinate the miners. Therefore, testers with mining needs need to apply for mining licenses from the SERO R&D team. In addition to mining, testing of other functions does not require a license. On the premise of not disclosing the identity of miners as much as possible, the block will expose some of the attributes in the license, which can be monitored by the SERO community. In the early stage of the Beta network, when the network is attacked and a major crisis occurred, the SERO team will use unconventional means to resist attacks and protect the property safety of community members through community voting under the premise of community permission and supervision. The license feature will be removed after BetaNet has been online for half a year.


https://sero.cash/ #Bounty #SERO #Privacy #Blockchain
submitted by locotoni to Crypto_ICO_Investing [link] [comments]

Is the Bond Market Starting to Crack? Should You Buy into the Bond Market? Government Bonds ... How Can We Shrink Government? Investing Basics: Bonds - YouTube Investing In Bonds For Beginners (UK) - YouTube

However, from a traditional point of view, the crypto-market’s volatility has kept many at bay, while government bonds continue to hold the title of ‘low risk’ investments. Government bonds v. Bitcoin This year has already turned the tables on the traditional market, with governments around the world trying to manage the tumbling economy. If the German Parliament adopts these regulations, financial institutions will be able to issue bonds not only on paper, but also as digital tokens. Even the opposition welcomes this initiative of the ruling coalition. As Frank Schaeffler, the blockchain expert of the Free Democratic Party said: The federal government has finally woken up. Now ... Government bonds in the UK: the facts. Government bonds in the UK are commonly known as gilts. They’re released whenever the state needs to raise money for day-to-day expenditure or big infrastructure projects. British government bonds are presented in £100 increments. Here’s how they work in a nutshell. I purchase a single bitcoin for £1,000 and sell it a while later for £8,000, I would have made a profit of £7,000. Now from what I understand from the government website is that UK Citizens have to pay CGT on all assets that are sold for a gain. The Federal Reserve has purchased $1 trillion in mortgage bonds since March, capturing 30% of the country’s outstanding mortgage bonds.

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Is the Bond Market Starting to Crack?

Government watchdog says federal budget deficit will top $1 ... UK Government for ... Bitcoin TA and why bitcoin will save us from Government - Duration: 44:29. davincij15 5,940 ... Investing in Bonds is a very common type of investment but one that is still a bit of an unknown to a lot of investors. In this video we will break down What... Subscribe https://www.youtube.com/IGUnitedKingdom?sub_confirmation=1 Learn all about government bonds: including what they are, how they work, and why they... UK government bonds, known as “Gilts”, are financial borrowing instruments that the government uses to finance the deficit, the difference between government spending and tax receipts. The best way to buy bitcoin instantly with fiat currency, in my opinion, is on Cash App (affiliate): https://cash.app/app/JWNRGTX Or, you can enter the invit...

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