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Gridcoin 184.108.40.206-Mandatory "Fern" Release
https://github.com/gridcoin-community/Gridcoin-Research/releases/tag/220.127.116.11 Finally! After over ten months of development and testing, "Fern" has arrived! This is a whopper. 240 pull requests merged. Essentially a complete rewrite that was started with the scraper (the "neural net" rewrite) in "Denise" has now been completed. Practically the ENTIRE Gridcoin specific codebase resting on top of the vanilla Bitcoin/Peercoin/Blackcoin vanilla PoS code has been rewritten. This removes the team requirement at last (see below), although there are many other important improvements besides that. Fern was a monumental undertaking. We had to encode all of the old rules active for the v10 block protocol in new code and ensure that the new code was 100% compatible. This had to be done in such a way as to clear out all of the old spaghetti and ring-fence it with tightly controlled class implementations. We then wrote an entirely new, simplified ruleset for research rewards and reengineered contracts (which includes beacon management, polls, and voting) using properly classed code. The fundamentals of Gridcoin with this release are now on a very sound and maintainable footing, and the developers believe the codebase as updated here will serve as the fundamental basis for Gridcoin's future roadmap. We have been testing this for MONTHS on testnet in various stages. The v10 (legacy) compatibility code has been running on testnet continuously as it was developed to ensure compatibility with existing nodes. During the last few months, we have done two private testnet forks and then the full public testnet testing for v11 code (the new protocol which is what Fern implements). The developers have also been running non-staking "sentinel" nodes on mainnet with this code to verify that the consensus rules are problem-free for the legacy compatibility code on the broader mainnet. We believe this amount of testing is going to result in a smooth rollout. Given the amount of changes in Fern, I am presenting TWO changelogs below. One is high level, which summarizes the most significant changes in the protocol. The second changelog is the detailed one in the usual format, and gives you an inkling of the size of this release.
Note that the protocol changes will not become active until we cross the hard-fork transition height to v11, which has been set at 2053000. Given current average block spacing, this should happen around October 4, about one month from now. Note that to get all of the beacons in the network on the new protocol, we are requiring ALL beacons to be validated. A two week (14 day) grace period is provided by the code, starting at the time of the transition height, for people currently holding a beacon to validate the beacon and prevent it from expiring. That means that EVERY CRUNCHER must advertise and validate their beacon AFTER the v11 transition (around Oct 4th) and BEFORE October 18th (or more precisely, 14 days from the actual date of the v11 transition). If you do not advertise and validate your beacon by this time, your beacon will expire and you will stop earning research rewards until you advertise and validate a new beacon. This process has been made much easier by a brand new beacon "wizard" that helps manage beacon advertisements and renewals. Once a beacon has been validated and is a v11 protocol beacon, the normal 180 day expiration rules apply. Note, however, that the 180 day expiration on research rewards has been removed with the Fern update. This means that while your beacon might expire after 180 days, your earned research rewards will be retained and can be claimed by advertising a beacon with the same CPID and going through the validation process again. In other words, you do not lose any earned research rewards if you do not stake a block within 180 days and keep your beacon up-to-date. The transition height is also when the team requirement will be relaxed for the network.
Besides the beacon wizard, there are a number of improvements to the GUI, including new UI transaction types (and icons) for staking the superblock, sidestake sends, beacon advertisement, voting, poll creation, and transactions with a message. The main screen has been revamped with a better summary section, and better status icons. Several changes under the hood have improved GUI performance. And finally, the diagnostics have been revamped.
The wallet sync speed has been DRASTICALLY improved. A decent machine with a good network connection should be able to sync the entire mainnet blockchain in less than 4 hours. A fast machine with a really fast network connection and a good SSD can do it in about 2.5 hours. One of our goals was to reduce or eliminate the reliance on snapshots for mainnet, and I think we have accomplished that goal with the new sync speed. We have also streamlined the in-memory structures for the blockchain which shaves some memory use. There are so many goodies here it is hard to summarize them all. I would like to thank all of the contributors to this release, but especially thank @cyrossignol, whose incredible contributions formed the backbone of this release. I would also like to pay special thanks to @barton2526, @caraka, and @Quezacoatl1, who tirelessly helped during the testing and polishing phase on testnet with testing and repeated builds for all architectures. The developers are proud to present this release to the community and we believe this represents the starting point for a true renaissance for Gridcoin!
Most significantly, nodes calculate research rewards directly from the magnitudes in EACH superblock between stakes instead of using a two- or three- point average based on a CPID's current magnitude and the magnitude for the CPID when it last staked. For those long-timers in the community, this has been referred to as "Superblock Windows," and was first done in proof-of-concept form by @denravonska.
Network magnitude unit pinned to a static value of 0.25
Max research reward allowed per block raised to 16384 GRC (from 12750 GRC)
New CPIDs begin accruing research rewards from the first superblock that contains the CPID instead of from the time of the beacon advertisement
500 GRC research reward limit for a CPID's first stake
6-month expiration for unclaimed rewards
10-block spacing requirement between research reward claims
Rolling 5-day payment-per-day limit
Legacy tolerances for floating-point error and time drift
The need to include a valid copy of a CPID's magnitude in a claim
10-block emission adjustment interval for the magnitude unit
One-time beacon activation requires that participants temporarily change their usernames to a verification code at one whitelisted BOINC project
Verification codes of pending beacons expire after 3 days
Self-service beacon removal
Burn fee for beacon advertisement increased from 0.00001 GRC to 0.5 GRC
Rain addresses derived from beacon keys instead of a default wallet address
Beacon expiration determined as of the current block instead of the previous block
The ability for developers to remove beacons
The ability to sign research reward claims with non-current but unexpired beacons
As a reminder:
Beacons expire after 6 months pass (180 days)
Beacons can be renewed after 5 months pass (150 days)
Renewed beacons must be signed with the same key as the original beacon
Magnitudes less than 1 include two fractional places
Magnitudes greater than or equal to 1 but less than 10 include one fractional place
A valid superblock must match a scraper convergence
Superblock popularity election mechanics
Yes/no/abstain and single-choice response types (no user-facing support yet)
To create a poll, a maximum of 250 UTXOs for a single address must add up to 100000 GRC. These are selected from the largest downwards.
Burn fee for creating polls scaled by the number of UTXOs claimed
50 GRC for a poll contract
0.001 GRC per claimed UTXO
Burn fee for casting votes scaled by the number of UTXOs claimed
0.01 GRC for a vote contract
0.01 GRC to claim magnitude
0.01 GRC per claimed address
0.001 GRC per claimed UTXO
Maximum length of a poll title: 80 characters
Maximum length of a poll question: 100 characters
Maximum length of a poll discussion website URL: 100 characters
Maximum number of poll choices: 20
Maximum length of a poll choice label: 100 characters
Magnitude, CPID count, and participant count poll weight types
The ability for developers to remove polls and votes
[18.104.22.168] 2020-09-03, mandatory, "Fern"
Backport newer uint256 types from Bitcoin #1570 (@cyrossignol)
Implement project level rain for rainbymagnitude #1580 (@jamescowens)
Upgrade utilities (Update checker and snapshot downloadeapplication) #1576 (@iFoggz)
Provide fees collected in the block by the miner #1601 (@iFoggz)
Add support for generating legacy superblocks from scraper stats #1603 (@cyrossignol)
Port of the Bitcoin Logger to Gridcoin #1600 (@jamescowens)
Implement zapwallettxes #1605 (@jamescowens)
Implements a global event filter to suppress help question mark #1609 (@jamescowens)
Add next target difficulty to RPC output #1615 (@cyrossignol)
Add caching for block hashes to CBlock #1624 (@cyrossignol)
Make toolbars and tray icon red for testnet #1637 (@jamescowens)
Add an rpc call convergencereport #1643 (@jamescowens)
Implement newline filter on config file read in #1645 (@jamescowens)
Implement beacon status icon/button #1646 (@jamescowens)
Add gridcointestnet.png #1649 (@caraka)
Add precision to support magnitudes less than 1 #1651 (@cyrossignol)
Replace research accrual calculations with superblock snapshots #1657 (@cyrossignol)
Publish example gridcoinresearch.conf as a md document to the doc directory #1662 (@jamescowens)
Add options checkbox to disable transaction notifications #1666 (@jamescowens)
Add support for self-service beacon deletion #1695 (@cyrossignol)
Add support for type-specific contract fee amounts #1698 (@cyrossignol)
Add verifiedbeaconreport and pendingbeaconreport #1696 (@jamescowens)
Add preliminary testing option for block v11 height on testnet #1706 (@cyrossignol)
Add verified beacons manifest part to superblock validator #1711 (@cyrossignol)
Implement beacon, vote, and superblock display categories/icons in UI transaction model #1717 (@jamescowens)
Hi Ether4all, you're not shadowbanned, but 9 of your most recent 89 comments/submissions were removed (either automatically or by human moderators).
ew5ytcz in unpopularopinion on 07 Aug 19 (1pts):
Are we listening to the same NPR? AP and Reuters maybe are better most, but to me NPR is one of the most biased all news sources that some people consider reputable. They cater to...
ew5w3dt in unpopularopinion on 07 Aug 19 (1pts):
In 2016 they wrote a hit job story about how Trump treated his former girlfriends. Several of the women they interviewed [came forward and said what they printed is exactly the opposite of what they...
eq3p55f in MandelaEffect on 05 Jun 19 (1pts):
Regarding the urban legend website, that just sounds like an ME to me - a collectively shared false memory. Either it came from something (a movie or TV show had a similar situation) or everyone is...
dlfa4vc in CryptoCurrency on 10 Aug 17 (1pts):
For traditional securities, you would need to pass the Series 7 exam and be licensed with FINRA at the very least if you are handling any for of investments for other people. There might be some...
iief4c in ethereum on 28 Aug 20 (1pts):
Wallet that allows spending of cold storage addresses with individual private keys
ewtras in yubikey on 31 Jan 20 (1pts):
Yubikey for Microsoft Outlook.com (Hotmail) account
6ousyj in ethtrader on 22 Jul 17 (1pts):
Offline wallet for Bitcoin with similar functionality as MyEtherWallet?
Author: Gamals Ahmed, CoinEx Business Ambassador https://preview.redd.it/5bqakdqgl3g51.jpg?width=865&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b709794863977eb6554e3919b9e00ca750e3e704 A decentralized storage network that transforms cloud storage into an account market. Miners obtain the integrity of the original protocol by providing data storage and / or retrieval. On the contrary, customers pay miners to store or distribute data and retrieve it. Filecoin announced, that there will be more delays before its main network is officially launched. Filecoin developers postponed the release date of their main network to late July to late August 2020. As mentioned in a recent announcement, the Filecoin team said that the initiative completed the first round of the internal protocol security audit. Platform developers claim that the results of the review showed that they need to make several changes to the protocol’s code base before performing the second stage of the software testing process. Created by Protocol Labs, Filecoin was developed using File System (IPFS), which is a peer-to-peer data storage network. Filecoin will allow users to trade storage space in an open and decentralized market. Filecoin developers implemented one of the largest cryptocurrency sales in 2017. They have privately obtained over $ 200 million from professional or accredited investors, including many institutional investors. The main network was slated to launch last month, but in February 2020, the Philly Queen development team delayed the release of the main network between July 15 and July 17, 2020. They claimed that the outbreak of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) in China was the main cause of the delay. The developers now say that they need more time to solve the problems found during a recent codecase audit. The Filecoin team noted the following: “We have drafted a number of protocol changes to ensure that building our major network launch is safe and economically sound.” The project developers will add them to two different implementations of Filecoin (Lotus and go-filecoin) in the coming weeks. Filecoin developers conducted a survey to allow platform community members to cast their votes on three different launch dates for Testnet Phase 2 and mainnet. The team reported that the community gave their votes. Based on the vote results, the Filecoin team announced a “conservative” estimate that the second phase of the network test should begin by May 11, 2020. The main Filecoin network may be launched sometime between July 20 and August 21, 2020. The updates to the project can be found on the Filecoin Road Map. Filecoin developers stated: “This option will make us get the most important protocol changes first, and then implement the rest as protocol updates during testnet.” Filecoin is back down from the final test stage. Another filecoin decentralized storage network provider launched its catalytic test network, the final stage of the storage network test that supports the blockchain. In a blog post on her website, Filecoin said she will postpone the last test round until August. The company also announced a calibration period from July 20 to August 3 to allow miners to test their mining settings and get an idea of how competition conditions affected their rewards. Filecoin had announced earlier last month that the catalytic testnet test would precede its flagship launch. The delay in the final test also means that the company has returned the main launch window between August 31 and September 21. Despite the lack of clear incentives for miners and multiple delays, Filecoin has succeeded in attracting huge interest, especially in China. Investors remained highly speculating on the network’s mining hardware and its premium price. Mining in Filecoin In most blockchain protocols, “miners” are network participants who do the work necessary to promote and maintain the blockchain. To provide these services, miners are compensated in the original cryptocurrency. Mining in Filecoin works completely differently — instead of contributing to computational power, miners contribute storage capacity to use for dealing with customers looking to store data. Filecoin will contain several types of miners: Storage miners responsible for storing files and data on the network. Miners retrieval, responsible for providing quick tubes for file recovery. Miners repair to be carried out. Storage miners are the heart of the network. They earn Filecoin by storing data for clients, and computerizing cipher directories to check storage over time. The probability of earning the reward reward and transaction fees is proportional to the amount of storage that the Miner contributes to the Filecoin network, not the hash power. Retriever miners are the veins of the network. They earn Filecoin by winning bids and mining fees for a specific file, which is determined by the market value of the said file size. Miners bandwidth and recovery / initial transaction response time will determine its ability to close recovery deals on the network. The maximum bandwidth of the recovery miners will determine the total amount of deals that it can enter into. In the current implementation, the focus is mostly on storage miners, who sell storage capacity for FIL.
The current system specifications recommended for running the miner are:
NVIDIA-manufactured GPU (to be expanded).
SSD drive designated as large buffer (512GB +).
Large amount of RAM for data replication account (128GB +)
Compared to the hardware requirements for running a validity checker, these standards are much higher — although they definitely deserve it. Since these will not increase in the presumed future, the money spent on Filecoin mining hardware will provide users with many years of reliable service, and they pay themselves many times. Think of investing as a small business for cloud storage. To launch a model on the current data hosting model, it will cost millions of dollars in infrastructure and logistics to get started. With Filecoin, you can do the same for a few thousand dollars. Proceed to mining Deals are the primary function of the Filecoin network, and it represents an agreement between a client and miners for a “storage” contract. Once the customer decides to have a miner to store based on the available capacity, duration and price required, he secures sufficient funds in a linked portfolio to cover the total cost of the deal. The deal is then published once the mine accepts the storage agreement. By default, all Filecoin miners are set to automatically accept any deal that meets their criteria, although this can be disabled for miners who prefer to organize their deals manually. After the deal is published, the customer prepares the data for storage and then transfers it to the miner. Upon receiving all the data, the miner fills in the data in a sector, closes it, and begins to provide proofs to the chain. Once the first confirmation is obtained, the customer can make sure the data is stored correctly, and the deal has officially started. Throughout the deal, the miner provides continuous proofs to the chain. Clients gradually pay with money they previously closed. If there is missing or late evidence, the miner is punished. More information about this can be found in the Runtime, Cut and Penalties section of this page. At Filecoin, miners earn two different types of rewards for their efforts: storage fees and reward prevention. Storage fees are the fees that customers pay regularly after reaching a deal, in exchange for storing data. This fee is automatically deposited into the withdrawal portfolio associated with miners while they continue to perform their duties over time, and is locked for a short period upon receipt. Block rewards are large sums given to miners calculated on a new block. Unlike storage fees, these rewards do not come from a linked customer; Instead, the new FIL “prints” the network as an inflationary and incentive measure for miners to develop the chain. All active miners on the network have a chance to get a block bonus, their chance to be directly proportional to the amount of storage space that is currently being contributed to the network. Duration of operation, cutting and penalties “Slashing” is a feature found in most blockchain protocols, and is used to punish miners who fail to provide reliable uptime or act maliciously against the network. In Filecoin, miners are susceptible to two different types of cut: storage error cut, unanimously reduce error. Storage Error Reduction is a term used to include a wider range of penalties, including error fees, sector penalties, and termination fees. Miners must pay these penalties if they fail to provide reliability of the sector or decide to leave the network voluntarily. An error fee is a penalty that a miner incurs for each non-working day. Sector punishment: A penalty incurred by a miner of a disrupted sector for which no error was reported before the WindowPoSt inspection. The sector will pay an error fee after the penalty of the sector once the error is discovered. Termination Fee: A penalty that a miner incurs when a sector is voluntary or involuntarily terminated and removed from the network. Cutting consensus error is the penalty that a miner incurs for committing consensus errors. This punishment applies to miners who have acted maliciously against the network consensus function. Filecoin miners Eight of the top 10 Felticoin miners are Chinese investors or companies, according to the blockchain explorer, while more companies are selling cloud mining contracts and distributed file sharing system hardware. CoinDesk’s Wolfe Chao wrote: “China’s craze for Filecoin may have been largely related to the long-standing popularity of crypto mining in the country overall, which is home to about 65% of the computing power on Bitcoin at discretion.” With Filecoin approaching the launch of the mainnet blocknet — after several delays since the $ 200 million increase in 2017 — Chinese investors are once again speculating strongly about network mining devices and their premium prices. Since Protocol Labs, the company behind Filecoin, released its “Test Incentives” program on June 9 that was scheduled to start in a week’s time, more than a dozen Chinese companies have started selling cloud mining contracts and hardware — despite important details such as economics Mining incentives on the main network are still endless. Sales volumes to date for each of these companies can range from half a million to tens of millions of dollars, according to self-reported data on these platforms that CoinDesk has watched and interviews with several mining hardware manufacturers. Filecoin’s goal is to build a distributed storage network with token rewards to spur storage hosting as a way to drive wider adoption. Protocol Labs launched a test network in December 2019. But the tokens mined in the testing environment so far are not representative of the true silicon coin that can be traded when the main network is turned on. Moreover, the mining incentive economics on testnet do not represent how final block rewards will be available on the main network. However, data from Blockecoin’s blocknetin testnet explorers show that eight out of 10 miners with the most effective mining force on testnet are currently Chinese miners. These eight miners have about 15 petabytes (PB) of effective storage mining power, accounting for more than 85% of the total test of 17.9 petable. For the context, 1 petabyte of hard disk storage = 1000 terabytes (terabytes) = 1 million gigabytes (GB). Filecoin craze in China may be closely related to the long-standing popularity of crypt mining in the country overall, which is home to about 65% of the computing power on Bitcoin by estimation. In addition, there has been a lot of hype in China about foreign exchange mining since 2018, as companies promote all types of devices when the network is still in development. “Encryption mining has always been popular in China,” said Andy Tien, co-founder of 1475, one of several mining hardware manufacturers in Philquin supported by prominent Chinese video indicators such as Fenbushi and Hashkey Capital. “Even though the Velikoyen mining process is more technologically sophisticated, the idea of mining using hard drives instead of specialized machines like Bitcoin ASIC may be a lot easier for retailers to understand,” he said. Meanwhile, according to Feixiaohao, a Chinese service comparable to CoinMarketCap, nearly 50 Chinese crypto exchanges are often somewhat unknown with some of the more well-known exchanges including Gate.io and Biki — have listed trading pairs for Filecoin currency contracts for USDT. In bitcoin mining, at the current difficulty level, one segment per second (TH / s) fragmentation rate is expected to generate around 0.000008 BTC within 24 hours. The higher the number of TH / s, the greater the number of bitcoins it should be able to produce proportionately. But in Filecoin, the efficient mining force of miners depends on the amount of data stamped on the hard drive, not the total size of the hard drive. To close data in the hard drive, the Filecoin miner still needs processing power, i.e. CPU or GPU as well as RAM. More powerful processors with improved software can confine data to the hard drive more quickly, so miners can combine more efficient mining energy faster on a given day. As of this stage, there appears to be no transparent way at the network level for retail investors to see how much of the purchased hard disk drive was purchased which actually represents an effective mining force. The U.S.-based Labs Protocol was behind Filecoin’s initial coin offer for 2017, which raised an astonishing $ 200 million. This was in addition to a $ 50 million increase in private investment supported by notable venture capital projects including Sequoia, Anderson Horowitz and Union Square Ventures. CoinDk’s parent company, CoinDk, has also invested in Protocol Labs. After rounds of delay, Protocol Protocols said in September 2019 that a testnet launch would be available around December 2019 and the main network would be rolled out in the first quarter of 2020. The test started as promised, but the main network has been delayed again and is now expected to launch in August 2020. What is Filecoin mining process? Filecoin mainly consists of three parts: the storage market (the chain), the blockecin Filecoin, and the search market (under the chain). Storage and research market in series and series respectively for security and efficiency. For users, the storage frequency is relatively low, and the security requirements are relatively high, so the storage process is placed on the chain. The retrieval frequency is much higher than the storage frequency when there is a certain amount of data. Given the performance problem in processing data on the chain, the retrieval process under the chain is performed. In order to solve the security issue of payment in the retrieval process, Filecoin adopts the micro-payment strategy. In simple terms, the process is to split the document into several copies, and every time the user gets a portion of the data, the corresponding fee is paid. Types of mines corresponding to Filecoin’s two major markets are miners and warehousers, among whom miners are primarily responsible for storing data and block packages, while miners are primarily responsible for data query. After the stable operation of the major Filecoin network in the future, the mining operator will be introduced, who is the main responsible for data maintenance. In the initial release of Filecoin, the request matching mechanism was not implemented in the storage market and retrieval market, but the takeover mechanism was adopted. The three main parts of Filecoin correspond to three processes, namely the stored procedure, retrieval process, packaging and reward process. The following figure shows the simplified process and the income of the miners: The Filecoin mining process is much more complicated, and the important factor in determining the previous mining profit is efficient storage. Effective storage is a key feature that distinguishes Filecoin from other decentralized storage projects. In Filecoin’s EC consensus, effective storage is similar to interest in PoS, which determines the likelihood that a miner will get the right to fill, that is, the proportion of miners effectively stored in the entire network is proportional to final mining revenue. It is also possible to obtain higher effective storage under the same hardware conditions by improving the mining algorithm. However, the current increase in the number of benefits that can be achieved by improving the algorithm is still unknown. It seeks to promote mining using Filecoin Discover Filecoin announced Filecoin Discover — a step to encourage miners to join the Filecoin network. According to the company, Filecoin Discover is “an ever-growing catalog of numerous petabytes of public data covering literature, science, art, and history.” Miners interested in sharing can choose which data sets they want to store, and receive that data on a drive at a cost. In exchange for storing this verified data, miners will earn additional Filecoin above the regular block rewards for storing data. Includes the current catalog of open source data sets; ENCODE, 1000 Genomes, Project Gutenberg, Berkley Self-driving data, more projects, and datasets are added every day. Ian Darrow, Head of Operations at Filecoin, commented on the announcement: “Over 2.5 quintillion bytes of data are created every day. This data includes 294 billion emails, 500 million tweets and 64 billion messages on social media. But it is also climatology reports, disease tracking maps, connected vehicle coordinates and much more. It is extremely important that we maintain data that will serve as the backbone for future research and discovery”. Miners who choose to participate in Filecoin Discover may receive hard drives pre-loaded with verified data, as well as setup and maintenance instructions, depending on the company. The Filecoin team will also host the Slack (fil-Discover-support) channel where miners can learn more. Filecoin got its fair share of obstacles along the way. Last month Filecoin announced a further delay before its main network was officially launched — after years of raising funds. In late July QEBR (OTC: QEBR) announced that it had ceded ownership of two subsidiaries in order to focus all of the company’s resources on building blockchain-based mining operations. The QEBR technology team previously announced that it has proven its system as a Filecoin node valid with CPU, GPU, bandwidth and storage compatibility that meets all IPFS guidelines. The QEBR test system is connected to the main Filecoin blockchain and the already mined filecoin coin has already been tested. “The disclosure of Sheen Boom and Jihye will allow our team to focus only on the upcoming global launch of Filecoin. QEBR branch, Shenzhen DZD Digital Technology Ltd. (“ DZD “), has a strong background in blockchain development, extraction Data, data acquisition, data processing, data technology research. We strongly believe Filecoin has the potential to be a leading blockchain-based cryptocurrency and will make every effort to make QEBR an important player when Mainecoin mainnet will be launched soon”. IPFS and Filecoin Filecoin and IPFS are complementary protocols for storing and sharing data in a decentralized network. While users are not required to use Filecoin and IPFS together, the two combined are working to resolve major failures in the current web infrastructure. IPFS It is an open source protocol that allows users to store and transmit verifiable data with each other. IPFS users insist on data on the network by installing it on their own device, to a third-party cloud service (known as Pinning Services), or through community-oriented systems where a group of individual IPFS users share resources to ensure the content stays live. The lack of an integrated catalytic mechanism is the challenge Filecoin hopes to solve by allowing users to catalyze long-term distributed storage at competitive prices through the storage contract market, while maintaining the efficiency and flexibility that the IPFS network provides. Using IPFS In IPFS, the data is hosted by the required data installation nodes. For data to persist while the user node is offline, users must either rely on their other peers to install their data voluntarily or use a central install service to store data. Peer-to-peer reliance caching data may be a good thing as one or multiple organizations share common files on an internal network, or where strong social contracts can be used to ensure continued hosting and preservation of content in the long run. Most users in an IPFS network use an installation service. Using Filecoin The last option is to install your data in a decentralized storage market, such as Filecoin. In Filecoin’s structure, customers make regular small payments to store data when a certain availability, while miners earn those payments by constantly checking the integrity of this data, storing it, and ensuring its quick recovery. This allows users to motivate Filecoin miners to ensure that their content will be live when it is needed, a distinct advantage of relying only on other network users as required using IPFS alone. Filecoin, powered by IPFS It is important to know that Filecoin is built on top of IPFS. Filecoin aims to be a very integrated and seamless storage market that takes advantage of the basic functions provided by IPFS, they are connected to each other, but can be implemented completely independently of each other. Users do not need to interact with Filecoin in order to use IPFS. Some advantages of sharing Filecoin with IPFS:
Filecoin and IPFS CIDs share hash specifications.
Use libp2p by Filecoin nodes to create secure connections with each other.
Messaging between nodes and cluster propagation is facilitated in Filecoin by libp2p pubsub.
IPLD use for blockchain data structures.
Use Graphsync to transfer data between nodes.
Of all the decentralized storage projects, Filecoin is undoubtedly the most interested, and IPFS has been running stably for two years, fully demonstrating the strength of its core protocol. Filecoin’s ability to obtain market share from traditional central storage depends on end-user experience and storage price. Currently, most Filecoin nodes are posted in the IDC room. Actual deployment and operation costs are not reduced compared to traditional central cloud storage, and the storage process is more complicated. PoRep and PoSt, which has a large number of proofs of unknown operation, are required to cause the actual storage cost to be so, in the early days of the release of Filecoin. The actual cost of storing data may be higher than the cost of central cloud storage, but the initial storage node may reduce the storage price in order to obtain block rewards, which may result in the actual storage price lower than traditional central cloud storage. In the long term, Filecoin still needs to take full advantage of its P2P storage, convert storage devices from specialization to civil use, and improve its algorithms to reduce storage costs without affecting user experience. The storage problem is an important problem to be solved in the blockchain field, so a large number of storage projects were presented at the 19th Web3 Summit. IPFS is an important part of Web3 visibility. Its development will affect the development of Web3 to some extent. Likewise, Web3 development somewhat determines the future of IPFS. Filecoin is an IPFS-based storage class project initiated by IPFS. There is no doubt that he is highly expected. Resources :
Hi Jrowe47, you're not shadowbanned, but 13 of your most recent 168 comments/submissions were removed (either automatically or by human moderators).
fxl4rij in FADQ on 11 Jul 20 (1pts):
Drugs that: ...reduce pain are analgesic. ...constrict blood vessels are vasoconstrictors. ...interact with serotonin receptors are serotonergic. ...stimulate mental and physical states are...
fxkwsi3 in FADQ on 10 Jul 20 (1pts):
Link to a source. For all we know, you're a black hat villain trying to pull off an evil dictionary hack. But really, take us down the rabbit hole. All I'm saying is I'm not gonna take your word for...
fwc6z5j in whatisthisthing on 29 Jun 20 (11pts):
Yes, those are Rick and Morty fan art sculptures.
fvj61do in photoshopbattles on 21 Jun 20 (1pts):
I haven't quite understood some of the new slang kids are using, but I think this would be a great place for "yeet."
cwpzq1 in MachineLearning on 28 Aug 19 (2pts):
GPT-2 774M Large Model (guide and discussion)
bmc3k9 in MachineLearning on 08 May 19 (1pts):
Could gpt-2 be useful for code generation?
6pzcir in DIY on 27 Jul 17 (1pts):
Tiny solar generators with reflector dishes, help wanted
6bs3o3 in askscience on 17 May 17 (1pts):
How to measure droplet size?
67vrbf in Bitcoin on 27 Apr 17 (0pts):
The linguistic quirks and tone of posts supporting bu and Bitmain
66oxxh in interestingasfuck on 21 Apr 17 (1pts):
Carvings in the pillars at Gobekle Tepe have been determined to be constellations
5wcwg9 in MachineLearning on 26 Feb 17 (1pts):
A question about FANN vs other libraries
5ifqp8 in explainlikeimfive on 15 Dec 16 (1pts):
ELI5: How does multiplication of the base point by a private key result in a valid x,y coordinate on the elliptic curve?
5ifoau in explainlikeimfive on 15 Dec 16 (1pts):
ELI5: In elliptic curve cryptography, how does multiplication of the private key by the base point result in an x,y coordinate?
I need some help with a paper I am writing about cryptocurrency. I am describing how Bitcoin works and while I checked all of my info I was confused about some parts. Could you help me? (I hope the opinionated parts don't piss anybody off)
Bitcoin is supposedly the first cryptocurrency to be ever created. Bitcoin was introduced in January of 2009 by Satoshi Nakamoto. The basic principle behind Bitcoin is quite simple, and becomes increasingly complicated once you dive deeper into it with things like forks, tethers, SegWits etc. Bitcoin in its purest form is a ledger. It's a way to keep track of transactions without technically transfering any money. A good and commonly used example is comparing it to a game of poker. In a game of poker instead of directly giving money or chips, depending on the time, one would simply write down how much each person owes another and at the end of a game tally up and divide and collect all the money. In Bitcoin this ledger is called the blockchain. The blockchain stores all of the info for the transactions; senders public keys, amounts, and receiver's public key. Two important aspects of the blockchain is that its both decentralized and completely public. Decentralized essentially means that all the servers are separately storing this public ledger. No central player has access and can influence it, this insures complete security over the ledger meaning that no one person can change it to so say what they want. Another factor of decentralization is there is, obviously, no central decider. This is very different from a countries currency, fiat currencies, which is controlled by a central figure. The good thing about a centralized currency is that price drops, pump-and-dumps, and crazy growth can all be controlled or at least managed. Bitcoin and most cryptocurrency can not do that. If one person who has a controlling percent of the currency decided to sell it and the price dropped a tremendous amount nothing could be done to help all the people who lost money. Another way that the system protects itself is by having the entire ledger public and many ledger keepers making sure nothing wrong or illicit. These ledger keepers call themselves miners. A good way to visualize this it to go back to the example of the poker table but just change one thing. Previously the group would check and tally up all the money but if we were to place Bitcoin as its example there would be hundreds of miners, or ledger keepers, in the room with us. So if I were to write down that "Vernon owes me 10$" all the ledger checkers would check this transaction and make sure there was no double-spending. In the world of Bitcoin the one job for the ledger checker is divided into two parts; the algorithm that makes sure the transaction is legit and the miners who are checking the verification of a transaction and not necessarily the transaction itself, theses are presented to the miners as puzzles, called hashes. Miners are rewarded for solving every block with some Bitcoin. Most cryptocurrencies today use the blockchain and mining to verify transactions.
Groestlcoin September 2019 Development Release/Update!
For a more interactive view of changes, click here In our current world; bordering on financial chaos, with tariff wars, Brexit and hyperinflation rife, you can count on Groestlcoin to consistently produce innovation that strikes to take the power away from the few and into the many, even after a full five and a half years of solid development. Here is what the team has already announced in the last 3 months since the last development update:
Groestl Nodes aims to map out and compare the status of the Groestlcoin mainnet and testnet networks. Even though these networks share the same protocol, there is currently no way to directly compare these coins in a single location. These statistics are essential to evaluate the relative health of both networks.
Shows Onion (Tor) nodes
Shows IPv6 nodes
Supports both main net and test net
Node Checker – Check the status of a remote node
Ability to download node data by CSV, JSON or TXT format
Ability to download unique address data by CSV, JSON or TXT format
This is a tool for creating unsigned raw Groestlcoin transactions and also to verify existing transactions by entering in the transaction hex and converting this to a human-readable format to verify that a transaction is correct before it is signed.
Create Raw Unsigned Groestlcoin transactions
Generates a QR code for the transaction
Compatible with most Groestlcoin wallets including but not restricted to Groestlcoin Core and Electrum-GRS
Estimates final signed transaction size
Taking a raw transaction format and shows its Transaction ID, Transaction Inputs and Outputs
AGCore is an Android app designed to make it easier to run a Groestlcoin Core node on always-on Android appliances such as set-top boxes, Android TVs and repurposed tablets/phones. If you are a non-technical user of Groestlcoin and want an Android app that makes it easy to run a Groestlcoin Core node by acting as a wrapper, then AG Core is the right choice for you.
Update to Groestlcoin Core 2.17.2
Switched to native builds via NDK for Groestlcoin Core resulting in a smaller footprint.
Added embedded tor
Added tor pairing support
TOR upgrade bug fixes
Improved blockchain Sync progress using getblockchaininfo verificationprogress
Improved package download progress bar
Added support for external storage access > Android M
Added support for Android Oreo, including new notification mechanism
Bump Fee (RBF) improvements – Implemented a new fee-bump strategy that can add new inputs, so now any transaction can be fee-bumped. The old strategy was to decrease the value of outputs (starting with change). We will now try the new strategy first, and only use the old as a fallback.
Coin Choser improvements
More likely to construct transactions without change (where possible)
Less likely to construct transactions with really small change
Only spend negative effective value coins when beneficial for privacy
Fix long-standing bug that broke wallets with >65k addresses
Windows binaries: Now build the PyInstaller bootloader ourselves, as this seems to reduce anti-virus false positives
Fix performance regression for large wallets
Fix high-DPI issues related to text fields
Trezor – Allow bypassing 'too old firmware' error
Trezor – Use only the Bridge to scan devices if it is available
Hardware wallets – On Win10-1903, some hardware devices with U2F functionality can only be detected with Administrator privileges. A workaround is to run as Admin, or for Trezor to install the Bridge.
The AppImage Linux x86_64 binary and the Windows setup.exe are now built reproducibly.
Fix watch-only wallets that could not bump fee in some scenarios
Faster transaction signing for segwit inputs or really large transactions.
Groestlwallet is designed to protect you from malware, browser security holes, even physical theft. With AES hardware encryption, app sandboxing, keychain and code signatures, groestlwallet represents a significant security advance over web and desktop wallets, and other mobile platforms. Simplicity is groestlwallet's core design principle. Because groestlwallet is "deterministic", your balance and entire transaction history can be restored from just your recovery phrase.
iOS 0.7.3 Changes
Fix BIP70 payments
Updated QR Scanner
Lowered spending limit
Updated DNS Seeds
Fixed URL Scheme
Fixed GRS Name in mailing
Fixed crash upon starting in some scenarios
Android v89 Changes
Use default fee
Republished on Google Play by removing send_sms permissions
Your weird buddy with a Ph.D. in physics (day job in engineering, because the economy) has come to you with a device that your mathematical abilities and coding knowledge has turned into an infinitely fast computer. Specifications:
All code is specified in a minimal combinator calculus, because it's the only thing you could embed into the exotic quantum state that is the computation medium.
The computer reduces reducible expressions to normal form in one step, which takes negligible time (less than a millisecond.)
The computer enters an error state if the expression does not have a normal form.
Essentially, this means that the running program can allocate arbitrarily large amounts of memory and perform arbitrarily many calculations in constant time, but never infinite amounts of either.
Here's a boring idea:
Crack Satoshi Nakamoto's private key and empty his bitcoin wallet.
Here's an interesting tool:
Implement a proof checker and do proof search for a proof of any desirable proposition that fits within, say, an exabyte.
Here's a fun problem:
How to determine the truth of the Collatz Conjecture without doing a direct proof search, using the fact that the computer enters an error state if the expression doesn't have normal form. (Keep in mind, numbers can both be parts of cycles outside 1-4-2-1, or be part of a sequence that escapes to infinity.)
No, you cannot just simulate the entire universe — you don't know the true laws of physics! What are you going to do with your infinitely fast computer? ETA: a significant limitation which it seems you guys gleefully ignore is the baud rate of anything the infiniputer is hooked up to, and the speed of programming.
Problematic action: Create a paper wallet on a paper wallet service website without disconnecting from the internet. Reason: It's extremely insecure for many reasons, some being 1) the website is hacked with generated private keys sent to the hacker; 2) there may be malware in the browser or in the operating system that sends the private keys to the hacker. Solution: The bottom line is to disconnect the internet before creating the paper wallet. It's not secure enough because 1) the malware can save the private keys and wait for internet connection to send them out; 2) the malware can interfere with the generation process itself and give you a private key that is already known to the hacker, which is called backdooring the random number generator; 3) the private keys may exist on the hard disk therefore may be extracted by malware or after the computer is disposed. Better solution: Download the paper wallet app from an online computer. Copy it to an offline computer via a flash drive. Run it from there. Best solution: Use a live operating system, such as a Linux live CD, to run the paper wallet app. This is not ultimately bullet-proof, especially for high-value targets, because there exist malware that can hide in the BIOS and firmware of your computer and can infect your live operating system. It should be secure enough for average Joes. Problematic action: Create a paper wallet without serious verifications. Reason: There may be incompatible issues with operating systems and browsers. Solution: Run tests on various operating systems and various browsers before putting BTC in. Make sure the generated private keys are identical. This applies to regular paper wallets and BIP38 paper wallets. Make sure the decrypted BIP38 keys are correct. Problematic action: Create a brain wallet created by bitaddress.org or other brain wallets without key stretching. Reason: It has been proven insecure. Solution: Use WarpWallet or other brain wallets with key stretching, e.g., scrypt, bcrypt, sha512crypt, pbkdf2, and so on.
Printing paper wallets:
Problematic action: Use a wireless printer. Reason: It's insecure because wireless networks are insecure. Solution: Use a wired printer. Problematic action: Use an advanced printer, which has internal storage, such as a hard drive. Reason: It is insecure because the private key of the paper wallet printed may be stored on the internal storage, therefore may be recovered if the printer is sold or scrapped. Solution: Use a dumb printer. Or keep the printer locked up and never sell or scrap it. Or smash the printer, including and especially the internal storage. Problematic action: Leave the printer open for other people to access after printing without turning it off. Reason: It's insecure because the private key printed may still be in the memory of the printer. Solution: Turn the printer off after printing. Problematic action: Leave the computer untreated after printing. Reason: It's insecure because the printer driver and/or operating system may be keeping copies of the documents you print in some sort of "spool" or print queue. Solution: Use a live operating system, such as a Linux live CD, to print. Problematic action: Use a shared printer (at work or school, for example). Reason: It's insecure because 1) the printer may have a glitch and someone else may get your printouts; 2) the printing jobs may be centrally logged. Solution: Don't. Use your own printer. Problematic action: Use a printer to print the private key or the QR code of the private key. Reason: See above. Solution 1: Don't use a printer for private key stuff. Hand-write the private key. Hand-draw the QR code if you and the helping checker are patient enough. Or ignore the QR code since hand-drawing the QR code of the private key may be too time-consuming. Double check. Then check it again, preferably on a different day. Get someone you trust to check it. Then get him/her to check it again, preferably on a different day. (Testing the private key in a wallet app can make it sure. But it comes with risks.) Solution 2: Don't use a printer for private key stuff. Use brain wallet. Write down the passphrase and the relevant information, e.g., the name of the tool used, e.g., WarpWallet, and the instructions. Store it the same way as a paper wallet. Save and store some copies of the tool, in case the future versions become incompatible. (There are pitfalls for creating man-made passphrases. It is beyond the scope of this post. In a nutshell, don't create the passphrase (solely) with your brain, and don't keep the passphrase (solely) with your brain.)
Spending from paper wallets:
Problematic action: Import a paper wallet private key into a wallet app, then spend directly from the paper wallet address. Mistake: Expect the paper wallet automatically receives/holds changes, similar to a real-life wallet, which may not be the case. Reason: Early wallet apps didn't handle the changes correctly. The changes became the transaction fees of the miners. There is a misunderstanding of how Bitcoin works. There is no account balance of any kind in Bitcoin. There is only Unspent Transaction Outputs (UTXOs). The receiving addresses of changes, which will become the new UTXOs, must be specified when BTC is spent. Otherwise, the changes will automatically become the transaction fees. This depends on the implementation of the wallet app, which should not be trusted. Mistake: Think nothing is wrong if changes are handled correctly. Reason: It's called address reuse, which is not recommended in Bitcoin because 1) it reduces anonymity of both the sender and all the consecutive receivers; 2) it reduces the security by exposing the public key, which is vulnerable to quantum computing. Addresses are hashes of public keys, which are safe from quantum computing. Mistake: Destroy the paper wallet after it's imported into an HD wallet, thinking that it has become a part of the HD wallet and it's safe to destroy because the master seed of the HD has been backed up. Reason: It is not a part of the HD wallet. If the paper wallet (the paper) is destroyed and the app is uninstalled, the BTC is gone even if the HD wallet is recovered from its master seed. The right way: Spend (transact) all BTC in a paper wallet to an address of your wallet app. It is called "sweeping", which is completely different from importing the private key. Spend BTC from there. After all the spending is finished, create a new paper wallet and transact all the remaining BTC to it. Store the new paper wallet. Keep the old one for future reference, or destroy it if you don't want the trace.
Destroying paper wallets:
Problematic action: Destroy a paper wallet after it is used. Reason: You may need to prove you had control of that address some day, e.g., for taxation purpose. In the case of a chain split, you may have a balance on the other chain. Solution: Don't ever destroy a paper wallet. Keep it on file. Mark it with the relevant information, e.g., "Used in April 2017". Unless you don't want to be tied to the address.
Pitfalls not specific to but more likely happen to paper wallets:
Problematic action: Google a famous wallet app, click the first link or the sponsored link, download/install it, and use it, without serious research. Reason: It's insecure because the wallet app may be a scam. Solution: Do thorough research prior to deciding which wallet app to use. Find the official site prior to downloading/installing it. Additions and corrections are welcome. Edit: multiple editing for additions, corrections, and clarifications. Disclaimer: Although I set off to make this article in order to use paper wallet safely, I ended up not using it. Some of the solutions are collected from the internet. Some are my untested ideas. Use the article at your risk.
Just got this email. Headers and source IPs included below for sanity, my own server's removed.
We represent a hacker group that focuses on hacking of crypto-currency wallets and exchanges. We know that you keep your coins on these exchanges. We got the database of users and passwords of the largest exchanges in our hands, but to get into the account we need to bypass two factor verification, collect private keys from your PCs, brute force mnemonic words. That will cost us some time. We give you the opportunity to exclude you from the base by reward us and we will remove you and we will not use your data. The amount we require is 0.03Bitcoin Bitcoin Wallet to pay: 1492bBQhiSRgS7k25mUsaedTSjwHkaWQRh Believe me, it's better to pay us than are afraid that at any moment you can lose all of your funds. After payment send us a letter on [email protected] and we will exclude you from the database.
Return-Path: Received: from xx.yy.net by xx.yy.net with LMTP id iFRoGsWxJVqwTg4AhVJKGA ; Mon, 04 Dec 2017 20:36:21 +0000 Return-path: Envelope-to: [email protected] Delivery-date: Mon, 04 Dec 2017 20:36:21 +0000 Received: from myserver.mymail.com ([123.345.674.345]:43276) by xx.yy.net with esmtpsa (TLSv1.2:ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384:256) (Exim 4.89) (envelope-from ) id 1eLxTR-003vvA-Bk for [email protected]; Mon, 04 Dec 2017 20:36:21 +0000 Received: from myserver.mymail.com (localhost [127.0.0.1]) by myserver.mymail.com (Postfix) with ESMTP id 2072E3EB85 for ; Mon, 4 Dec 2017 20:36:21 +0000 (GMT) Received: by myserver.mymail.com (Postfix, from userid 1001) id 11B1B3EB97; Mon, 4 Dec 2017 20:36:21 +0000 (GMT) X-Spam-Checker-Version: SpamAssassin 3.4.1 (2015-04-28) on myserver.mymail.com X-Spam-Status: No, score=-1.9 required=5.0 tests=BAYES_50,FROM_EXCESS_BASE64, HEADER_FROM_DIFFERENT_DOMAINS,HTML_MESSAGE,HTML_MIME_NO_HTML_TAG, MIME_HTML_ONLY,RCVD_IN_DNSWL_NONE,RCVD_IN_MSPIKE_H3,RCVD_IN_MSPIKE_WL, RCVD_IN_SORBS_WEB,TVD_PH_BODY_ACCOUNTS_PRE,T_RP_MATCHES_RCVD autolearn=disabled version=3.4.1 X-Spam-Bar: Received: from sg2nlshrout02.shr.prod.sin2.secureserver.net (sg2nlshrout02.shr.prod.sin2.secureserver.net [22.214.171.124]) (using TLSv1.2 with cipher ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384 (256/256 bits)) (No client certificate requested) by myserver.mymail.com (Postfix) with ESMTPS id DA34B3EB85 for ; Mon, 4 Dec 2017 20:36:18 +0000 (GMT) Received: from sg2plcpnl0225.prod.sin2.secureserver.net ([126.96.36.199]) by : HOSTING RELAY : with SMTP id LxSSeJAMMIeO9LxSSeVuW2; Mon, 04 Dec 2017 13:35:20 -0700 Received: from technobrix2 by sg2plcpnl0225.prod.sin2.secureserver.net with local (Exim 4.88) (envelope-from ) id 1eLxSM-000mmb-Tb for [email protected]; Mon, 04 Dec 2017 13:35:15 -0700 To: [email protected] Subject: Read this letter X-PHP-Script: www.axistrip.com/wp-admin/css/colors/coffee/45rweds2.php for 188.8.131.52 From: =?utf-8?B?Sm9zaHVIYWNr?= MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: text/html; charset="utf-8" Reply-To: [email protected] X-Mailer: PHP/5.4.45 Message-Id: Date: Mon, 04 Dec 2017 13:35:14 -0700 X-AntiAbuse: This header was added to track abuse, please include it with any abuse report X-AntiAbuse: Primary Hostname - sg2plcpnl0225.prod.sin2.secureserver.net X-AntiAbuse: Original Domain - mymail.com X-AntiAbuse: OriginatoCaller UID/GID - [3048020 217] / [47 12] X-AntiAbuse: Sender Address Domain - sg2plcpnl0225.prod.sin2.secureserver.net X-Get-Message-Sender-Via: sg2plcpnl0225.prod.sin2.secureserver.net: authenticated_id: technobrix2/only user confirmed/virtual account not confirmed X-Authenticated-Sender: sg2plcpnl0225.prod.sin2.secureserver.net: technobrix2 X-Source: X-Source-Args: /ussbin/proxyexec -q -d -s /valib/proxyexec/cagefs.sock/socket /bin/cagefs.server X-Source-Dir: hostflake.com:/public_html/axistrip.com/wp-admin/css/colors/coffee X-CMAE-Envelope: MS4wfM/z4G+Xi6UCAd9OTx0ZCF+0ghzDc5wCB14apEA/1HjHwxwwCaQnTGJwKexrgKOeyjcK3sn7O4YbyJz9M54vj3wXMm/ADvbMwnPRikX9vzwciT5/7z95 Ukgx9wTVoUnWOD5od4CGuBgIjvhj0DrrVJKy9Aa6V/tjpmS0L5HwchjplG/ghtNJQTfivN2V91TJVmffqcCx+FV328/wUwKGZSL1Y7kCDWqNoXmWuhxs0OeJ UsgeBUV2d4c4vaK7CSlyfQ== X-AV-Checked: ClamAV using ClamSMTP We represent a hacker group that focuses on hacking of crypto-currency wallets and exchanges. We know that you keep your coins on these exchanges. We got the database of users and passwords of the largest exchanges in our hands, but to get into the account we need to bypass two factor verification, collect private keys from your PCs, brute force mnemonic words. That will cost us some time. We give you the opportunity to exclude you from the base by reward us and we will remove you and we will not use your data.
The amount we require is 0.03Bitcoin
Bitcoin Wallet to pay: 1492bBQhiSRgS7k25mUsaedTSjwHkaWQRh
Believe me, it's better to pay us than are afraid that at any moment you can lose all of your funds.
After payment send us a letter on [email protected] and we will exclude you from the database.
How to get free BCH, BTG, BTX, CLAM, SBTC, BCD, BTP and BTN and cash them out
*EDIT: a new version of this guide, multilingual and featuring a wallet checker (input your IP, see what you can fork and how much it is worth) is available at https://cryptodom.org *
Dear you all! I have been following closely the airdrops and especially the forks of the last month or so, and I am proud to announce I have just successfully claimed (&cashed) my BTF and my BTW. After claiming (&cashing), in order, BCH, BTG, BTX, CLAM, SBTC, BCD. Like most of you, if you are reading this, I am still looking for a solution for B2X, and I have also claimed but have so far been unable to cash out BTP and BTN. *EDIT: Now created, transferred and cashed B2X, BTP and BTN - See EDIT at the end of the post While doing all this, I did notice a couple of things: 1- It is extremely hard to find proper information about the forks (here’s a good starting point though: https://btcdiv.com/ ) 2- There are significant security risks involved with these procedures I will try my best to try and explain you what I did, while also offering a service to do it for you for a fair fee if you still can’t do it/don’t feel safe doing it. Here we go: INTRO Before you start this, ask yourself a very important question: do I understand what I am doing? If the answer is YES, then you should have your private keys and you are good to skip the intro. Let me try to make this short and easy: you have some bitcoins, somewhere. In some cases you have direct access to the keys (LEDGER*, blockchain…), in other instances you don’t (crypto held on exchanges). If you DO have access to those keys, you need to do two extremely important things: 1- Write it down 2- Move your whole balance to another wallet/address Please note that if you fail to implement number 2, any hacker claiming to “do this for you” will steal your bitcoins. As simple as that. No matter what you are claiming, taking the risk won’t be worth it, so MOVE YOUR BITCOINS from the address you stored the private keys of. PART 1/a - CLAIMING - COINOMI (BCH, BTG, BTX, CLAM) Please note: how much you can claim depends on how much was on the wallet you will be sweeping from at the time of the fork. Considering that the blockchain is free for everyone to explore, you can figure this out easily. In most cases, a blockchain explorer could help you know how much your keys are worth before you sweep them. Be aware that the maths are MORE OR LESS these: are you holding 5+ BTC since 2017 (the further the better)? Congrats, you are in for some real money. Conversely, if you have been holding <1 bitcoin you are probably just losing your time as whatever you’ll get won’t meet the thresholds for minimum transfers anyway (unless we are talking BTG and BCH, good luck with that). Download COINOMI on your android (https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.coinomi.wallet) Open coinomi and set it up (create a wallet and write down details, thank yourself later) Now add BCH, BTG, BTX, CLAM as coins to your wallet and then claim them one by one in the same order To claim, go inside the coin’s screen and click the three dots on the top right of the page —> Sweep wallet (repeat for all coins) PART 1/b - CLAIMING - BITHER (SBTC, BCD, BTF, BTW, BTP, BTN) Download these two apps on your android: BITHER, BITPIE (https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=net.bither / https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.bitpie) Open and setup both apps (create a wallet and write down details, thank yourself later) Now open BITHER and click the settings icon (top right), then ADVANCED OPTIONS —> IMPORT PRIVATE KEY —> FROM PRIVATE KEY TEXT (Important; use the "FROM PRIVATE KEY TEXT" option, NOT the one with the BITHER key!) to claim, go ADVANCED OPTIONS —> GET FORK COINS and take it from there (your private keys should have been imported and should show you how much they have on them (SBTC, BCD, BTF, BTW, BTP, BTN) At this point, all you need to do is to tell BITHER to transfer the free coins to a corresponding BITPIE address PART 1/c - CLAIMING - DIG WALLETING SERVICES (UNTESTED) (BCH,BTG,SBTC,BCD,BTF,UBTC,B2X,BCX) Today I also chanced upon a site ( https://bitcoinforks.io/ ) , which gives a nice picture of the forks. Apparently, they also have an automatic “digger” that charges 10% to transfer the forked coins to a (fork) wallet of your choice. I have tried to test with UTBC but it told me I had no coins, which might actually be true. Some users on bitcointalk report success, so feel free to try with small amounts and see if it works for you. Please note they take a commission on the CLAIMING part, while, at least to my understanding, COINOMI and BITHER do not (even though BITHER forces you to transfer to a BITPIE address). PART 2 - CASHING OUT If you got this far and you now have a balance in any of the coins above, you should immediately transfer the “real” coins (BCH/BTG) out to a reputable exchange/wallet (not that I do not trust Coinomi but you never know), and try to convert the rest to a proper coin before moving it in bulk to an address of your choice. Apart from Coinomi, this is where it gets tricky. A lot of those coins are only listed on some obscure Chinese exchanges and it’s hard to even understand what the value of the coin is since it varies widely from one to the other. Some of those coins MIGHT one day make it to a major exchange, granted, but personally I couldn’t wait to dump all of them (I regret doing so with BTX though). So I went through the whole verification/blind trust process required by the shady sites and… I got my free coins converted into actual BTC/LTC. On that note, it must be noted that not content with applying daylight robbery fees the exchanges also require a minimum amount for you to be able to withdraw (and a verification with ID in some cases). Here is what I did and how it went: I got accounts on GATE.IO - BIT-Z.COM - BTCTRADE.IM* and somewhat made my money get out of there and safely into my ledger. Would I recommend those exchanges? Well… Personally I have nothing but praise for GATE.IO and BIT-Z.COM - They accepted my transfers speedily and I could trade and withdraw easily - no verification needed. As for BTCTRADE.IM, it did require verification and is by far the slowest of them all, but since I got money out (in the end) I can’t complain for the time being. Note: problems getting verified with btctrade.com? Read this : https://www.reddit.com/BitcoinAirdrops/comments/7qqxv4/guide_claiming_and_dumping_bitcoin_faith_btf_fo PART 3 - DO YOU NEED HELP? Some of you will laugh at my deal, since they are smart, tech savvy and are running several nodes of all the existing forked chains from a computer in their basement, interacting with the exchanges via API only. However, I expect the vast majority of you to be able to arrive to part 2 but then get stuck at moving the money to the Chinese exchanges. Let me reiterate that they worked for me, so I’d generally recommend them. In case you do NOT want to try and get through that yourself, I would like to help! Here is how: PM to get in touch Transfer the forked coins to my bitpie/btctrade/gate.io/coinex addresses Wait for me to receive, transfer to the exchange, change it into LTC/BTC/BCH and send it back to you, minus a fee** Please note that some transfers take time, and this is independent of me. I will, however, send you all the transaction details as I do the operations so that you can track it yourself. *QUICK REMINDERS: BTCTRADE.IM withdrawal fee: btc: 0.001 BCH: 0.001 BITPIE EXCHANGE: BTF/BTW need 120 confirmations to transfer from bitpie to the exchange (my first BTF transfer took nearly 32 hours, BTW took 20)- you will be able to monitor that from your own bitpie wallet and you can ping me when it hits the magic number. GATE.IO and BIT-Z.COM are faster (10+ confirmations I think) so I should use them if possible (depending on coin deposit availability). **FEES You can check the value of the coins on the exchanges to get a rough idea of how much your coins are worth - I will send you all the transactions anyway but please do your research. Sometimes coins have high value on exchanges where deposits are not accepted, for instance, and tend to drop sharply in value as soon as the gates are opened. Depending on how much I will be moving for you, these are my fees: 5% (>2000 USD worth) 10% (between 500 and 1999 USD worth) 50 USD (<500 USD worth) Oh and one last thing… Why would you trust me? If nothing, for the simple reason that I honestly told you exactly HOW to get the forked money and through which exchanges I cashed it out. I simply wrote the post that I wish I had found when I started doing this, and I hope that some of you will be lazy enough to use me for the most complicated part of the deal, giving me something in the process. If I get nothing out of it, I will be fine and happy to have spread some knowledge anyway!
EDIT 1 - 12:48 GMT 25-01-2018
I have tried DIG WALLETING (affiliate link: https://dig.walleting.services/#/aff/o5YP75ALDORdaAbmrJJx NON affiliate link: https://dig.walleting.services/#) and they did a great job. The hard part, as usual, was to have a proper address to transfer them to. Anyway... Now claimed and cashed UBTC as well as B2X (btctrade.im & exrates.me respectively - thanks #hniball) Bither & Bitpie opened the exchange (on Bitpie). The process is a bit convoluted and you need to transfer the money in and out of the "pie bank" in order to dump. Prices are tanking fast and it takes hours to even transfer the money. Astronomical fees, but it worked and I cashed out BTP and BTF in BCH. Fun fact: I thought I had 5k USD in BTP (according to the BITPIE wallet). They eventually turned out to be 0.05 BCH (Thanks, BITPIE exchange). Reality check... Given what I know now, I'd advise to use DIG WALLETING to send the forkcoins directly to my BITPIE addresses if you want me to do it for you (or send me the seed once you have emptied the wallet, that would work too). But, as usual, you are more than welcome to do it on your own. IF I HELPED YOU, YOU CAN TIP ME HERE: •BTC tip jar: 1BEAADXCk3ng2ZRsinHmwVyZQf1Vu9AcDj •LTC tip jar: LYT1sbotLuUtU5v5r9uEu61xoGpJ1s4aau
Free $50+ for people that had dogecoin wallets in 2014
Just wanted to let everyone know that you might have extra money if you have had a dogecoin wallet since 2014. A crypto currency called clams were given out in May 2014 and you can claim them with your private key. You do not need to have dogecoin on it now. If you do you should move them before using this service to get your free money. The site I found that does this is https://freebitcoins.com/clamcheckedig_wallet/ I didn't know about this until recently and I though I would share it with others. The $50+ dollars is per wallet that had doge on it so you can end up with even more. Clam checker takes a portion of the clams for their service. Also I did not put in a referral link, so I'm not making money off this, I just want to help others out who might not have heard about this yet. I agree it sounds like a scam but here are the facts from the site https://freebitcoins.com/faq/#what-is-clamchecker and please do your own research to verify. Edit:Thanks to DickDover another address is http://www.clamcoin.org/ to claim clamswithout paying a fee. The freebitcoins address will convert the clams straight to bitcoin.
Anyone wanted to buy a Casascius Bitcoin but was afraid to?
so i've been wanting one of these for a while and the thing holding me back is that it is known that the hologram can be removed and reapplied with the average person not being able to tell it was tampered with. Does this idea bother anyone else? A malicious seller could sell a fully "loaded" coin and have done what these hackers did. You check the casascius checker sites and it's unredeemed but unknowingly the seller already has the private key waiting to sweep it after you pay a premium https://99bitcoins.com/defcon-hacking-conference-casascius-physical-bitcoins-get-cracked/
[PSA] Flux's guide to CS:GO trading and how to do other things good too.
Hello /globaloffensivetrade, While I am fairly new to the cs:go trading scene, I have a fair amount of past experience TF2 trading, as well as a few other games, and thus have learnt through a bit of luck and experience how to make profit. I get asked questions multiple times a day about some of these trading basics, and you guys seemed quite keen, so I've decided to write this guide. I spent a lot of time and effort on this, so I would appreciate your feedback and feel free to point out any obvious mistakes. If nothing else, read the bolded and italicised parts. About me: I've been trading in cs:go for about 3-4 months now, and used to trade heavily in TF2 before cashing out my money and investing it into csgo. I've probably put in around ~$1500 from that and have cashed out about $15000, and still have a [fairly decent inventory](#). Before we get to the part on how I did this, we need to start from the beginning. Introduction: When starting to trade, it is a good idea to have an idea what you want. Whether you want to get a particular skin or knife, or earn a living, or just have fun will direct how you might want to trade. I personally trade for fun, but as it turns out making a profit can be quite fun. There is already a good guide to the basics of trading here, and I will try not to reiterate this, but instead explain some more practical details. I recommend you read this if you are completely new to csgo/trading. Some 'tools' of the trade: These are sites or tools which are handy to bookmark, check regularly or use. Trading sites: Everybody knows Csgo lounge or Csgl, and that it can be quite the hive of scumbag and villany, however due to its high traffic flow, is probably one of the best media to trade. (Will add more here if I discover more good trading sites) Pricing Sites: For most items that the average trader deals with, the price can be looked up quite well at www.steamanalyst.com. Now it is important to know that this is the 'market price' and is not the same as its cash value. When dealing with the steam marketplace, keys take a value of $2.5 USD, and thus the price of skins in keys is their market price / 2.5. Keys are the primary currency of csgo trading and are known as 'pure' offers. Cash value of items is their key value x $1.8-1.9. Offering a 5 key skin is not the same as offering 5 keys as a 5 dollar note isn't the same as 5 dollars worth of groceries. Other sites such as csgo stash also has similar information. Pricing for items above market price requires some knowledge and experience. People such as elowynoceania have setup a steam group to price check some of these items and has also written a rough price list found here. A handful of people on this subreddit are also experience in price checking (and I will add a list here of any who are willing; send me a message). Price checkers (with specialty): **It seems that most people I've listed have stopped price checking. If you are willing to help, please pm me with your steamURL and/or specialty with regards to price checking. Pricing for knives and skins can vary on their look, even skins of the same type with the same condition may be worth very different. And somewhat strangely, prices of identically looking skins/knives can be very different if they have different conditions. Browser extensions: This list was compiled by etherfasthere, but I'll copy paste it for convenience. These are incredibly helpful and have streamlined my trading experience, saving me a lot of time and effort.
While I get these two nice weeks off, I thought about putting some time into helping you guys improve your trading experience. Before I make my list, I want to stress this out that these are mostly for Chrome users. If you have no reason not to switch to Chrome, you should do it. Some of the extensions have Firefox versions as well, but not all of them. 1. Enhanced Steam This is a nice extension that isn't necessarily related to trading, but it enhances your Steam experience. This is by far the most complex Steam extension, and the list of features is endless 2. Lounge Companion (Dota 2 & CS:GO) No longer allowed on csgl This will make your CSGL experience better, by allowing you to price check items on the fly and helping you bet easier. 3. Reddit Enhancement Suite This is well known and it will improve your Reddit Experience and once you try it, you won't be able to live without it. Once again, the features are endless. 4. Reddit Trading Flair Linker Enhanced This extends people's flairs when you browse the subreddit. It's really nice because it gives you a clickable Steam link, points out any privacy/VAC Bans/Trade bans and tells you if the person is online or playing anything. 5. Steam Community SteamRep Integration This will highlight profiles banned on SteamRep for you. It doesn't take into account the pending reports, so you might want to do that check yourself. But when that box turns red, you know it's a good warning sign. 6. Steam item search between friends. This helps you find that specific friend of yours that has that nice Bayonet you want. It loads all of your friends' inventories locally and it makes them searchable. It takes a bit of time to preload, but it's a good alternative to searching through inventories yourself. 7. Decline Unavailable Trade Offers (credit to hohchu, and more) This helps you dismiss that annoying green envelope that sticks to you when a trade offer is unavailable.
How to start trading? Now you've bookmarked all those sites I've linked, and read the guides and downloaded all the plugins, what now? Well first in any business, you need to invest something in order to make something, there is no two ways about it. A decent investment (at least $100) will allow you to start trading decently. I recommend the best route to do this is by buying keys off people who are reputable on this subreddit, who sell for around $1.8-2. This is best done via paypal, and will be initially a slow, difficult process as you will have no reputation or rep at this point. You may even want to buy keys off the steam store, however note that these may not be immediately tradeable depending on your payment method. Once you have the keys, look around on the subreddit, csgl, play the game and generally immerse yourself in the community. This will give you some idea of what things are valuable and demanded. Skins which look nice are generally worth more than skins that aren't as nice. Betting skins, such as the AK Redline FT, AWP Asiimov FT, etc tend to be easier to sell just before a tournament, and easier to buy just after. Once you have a good grasp of what is valued, start making a few trades. Add or message people and offer your keys on their items, and then if they say yes, try selling it for a bit more and voila you have just made your first bit of profit. Now I will go much further in depth later on, but this is the gist of it. How to gain reputation? It can be very difficult to gain rep as a beginning trader. There is the catch-22 where people won't sell you things for cash because you don't have rep, and thus you can't get any rep. However, it is very possible to get rep if you present yourself right. Firstly it helps to have a decently set up steam account. Private profiles are strongly discouraged and most people won't even add you. Private inventories may also be an issue to people. Having an older account and/or a steam level above 2-3 will also make things a bit smoother, as people realise you have invested some time/effort/money into your steam account. As an example I will use my profile. I have a prominently displayed 6 year of service badge. I am level 33, which means I have invested a fair amount of money into my steam account, and I have a lot of hours of a variety of games as well as a lot of +rep comments on my profile. It may even be good to put the country you are from on your profile, given that eastern european accounts have a relatively high rate of scammers, and some people will be more comfortable trading you if you are in their country. Now on the flipside, lacking these things may lead to suspicion of being a possible scammer. Secondly, being a generally mature and polite person will build more trust with anybody dealing with you. Being aggressive, abusive or seeming illiterate are red flags which may suggest that you are not a trustworthy person. I personally refuse to accept accidental trade offers which they have put none of my items in, and constantly strive to be an honest trader and to not take advantage of people. Now, these things aren't necessary, but being this kind of person will generally help you overall in trading as well as life. To get meaningful rep for cash trades, you need to setup a thread that isn't your profile, as your profile is not monitored by anybody but yourself. Accusations of scamming can be deleted and +reps can be faked by friends on your profile. So set up a thread here on the steam group: CS:GO Rep. Feel free to copy my setup here but insert your own information which can be found by searching your steamURL on steamrep. Once you've done that, make sure you get the people you trade with to leave a message regarding the trade on your thread, so keep that link handy (I have mine linked on my steam profile). Now probably the easiest way to do this is to buy a few keys off the steam market, and then sell them to people who have a lot of rep. You will lose some money initially, but you will gain some all-important rep, and will soon be able to buy keys for cash. Doing multiple small transactions is the best way to build rep initially. Selling a few keys here and there, and buying a few will start to fill out your thread. How to screen people as potential scammers? There is already a very helpful guide on how to avoid common scams here and here. The most definitive way to tell somebody is a scammer, is if they've done it before and been reported for it. Before doing ANY trade, search their steamURL in www.steamrep.com. A person who is a scammer will have a red outline and it will say 'banned' and will explain why. People who have an orange border with 'x number of reports filed' are generally scammers as well, and I strongly suggest you do NOT trade with either of these types of people. For people who are scammers-to-be, red flags include:
Impersonating another account
Low amount of hours/few games
New steam account/low steam level
Private inventory/not valuable
Not many comments
Russian, Romanian or even Italian, or named laska (sounds racist, but the majority of scammers I've met were either of these)
1:58 AM - laskerZ: razizt guide 0/10 1:59 AM - Horrorshow Flux: hahaha 1:59 AM - laskerZ: I'm hugely offended by it. As an Eastern-European, I DEMAND IT TO BE REMOVED
Young, immature (<15 years old) - don't really understand the results of their actions
Overly keen, impatient to receive your item, offer to pay more than your buyout
Know a lot about how cash trading works without having any rep (though some people may have experience in ebay trades, etc and can be trusted)
Suspicious in any way (if it sounds too good to be true, it usually is)
Basically if they don't have much to lose, often they will be more likely to scam. People with established names and profiles and inventories have much more to lose and so can be more trustworthy. If I were ever to scam, my lost reputation would be more costly in the long run than any single deal, not that is my only reason I don't scam, just to mention another, I'm not an asshole. How to cash trade? Typically paypal is used in most cash trades, being the most convenient generally. Skrill or BTC (bitcoin) can also be used, but I don't personally have much experience in either of these. Typically how trades are done is the buyer will send a money payment as family and friends and pay any fees to the seller, and once the money is confirmed to be received, the seller will send a trade. This method is still possible to be chargebacked, do not listen to anybody who tells you otherwise. Note some countries don't have this option. A middleman can be used, who can be found here, and will hold on to the item before the buyer pays, and will only trade to the buyer once they confirm the seller has received the money. This prevents direct scams, but offers no protection for chargebacks. Chargebacks are the main reason I require people to have rep before dealing in cash with them. How to setup a neat table for a reddit post? Easy, just copy what I've done here: |Type|Skin|Wear|Comment/Screenshots|Current Offer|Buyout| |:----------|:----------|:----------|:----------|:----------|:-------|:-------| |Knife|Butterfly Night|FT|Clean looking|None|95k Now for the big buck item: How to make profit? The secret to profit is high volume, small profit trades. I will outline how my strategy works below, but it is not necessary to read to make profit, skimming the paragraphs and reading the TL;DR at the bottom should be sufficient. The classic 'buy low, sell high' advice is only partially true. I see so many people trying to sell high and never getting any trades. It really should be 'buy low, sell market'. Buying items: It is important to understand a sellers' psychology, in order to understand how to get good deals. First of all you have to buy an item. You do this by exposing yourself to the market as long as possible to find good deals. Post on multiple cs:go/reddit trades, frequently browsing the new section. If you are to offer on a trade, if you are paying pure keys, feel free to offer a little bit less than market price or their buyout (yet still reasonable), so there is a profit margin for you. If you do it in the right manner, more often than not, people are often flexible enough to accept their price, since a reasonable guy with a reasonable price is a good person to trade with. If you offer skins, people more often than not will not value skin offers as highly as keys (though there are exceptions). Selling items for a profit: Note that this is more of an explanation of maximum profit, and is a little bit unnecessary to actually profit. When selling an item you need to understand buyer's psychology and some basic statistics (OH NO THE HORROR!). They want to do either of two things with the item: Use it it or sell it, roughly I'd say the proportions respectively of these people are 1:4. When I say they want to use the item, I mean usually they want to play with it. Thus they are willing to pay full price (FP) or a little bit more (FP + 1 arbitrary unit). The arbitrary unit (AU) can be anything; a dollar, a key, etc and is tied to the value of the item, often around 5%. It is basically your profit margin for most items. Occasionally users will be willing to pay slightly higher than full price, but it isn't enough to rely on the small proportion who do for most of your profits. Then there are those looking for a profit. Thus they will often be paying a low price (FP - 2 ~ FP - 1). If you have bought it for fairly cheap (=< FP - 2) then you can easily flip it to these people for FP - 1 for at least an AU profit. What price you bought it for may determine whether or not you sell to a specific type of buyer. If you paid full price (FP) then you price your item at > FP + 1 and search for the small proportion of people who are willing to pay more. I have found that the mean price of items if you pay keys is FP - 1, with a standard deviation of 1 AU. I found it optimal to focus on buying items at the price of FP - 1 ~ FP - 2. Thus at the highest range of your buying, you make a profit from 20% of the population, and at the lower end you make it from almost 100% of the population. Of course these numbers are highly speculative. Here's a graphical explanation for what I am saying. This graph represents roughly the market for items. I am suggesting that you buy at FP - 1 and Sell at FP for maximal consistent profit, as in this picture, where the pink is your sweet sweet profit, basically the crux of my entire guide, not only this is profitable, it is very stable and consistent and safe profits (with the notable exception of new items, which don't have a fixed FP). TLDR;Buy highly demanded items for under the market price, and sell for market price or slightly below for maximum profit/time. Cutting your losses/How to get unstuck as a trader? Sometimes you will find yourself with an item which should be worth x, but you aren't getting offers near it. Maybe you got ripped off, or it has suddenly dropped in price. This is when you cut your losses. Moping over your loss won't help you earn more and will keep you stuck at your current value. Don't be too attached to your items, unless you have already gotten your 'dream knife', so why would you even be reading this :P? Profit is based exponentially on what you have, i.e. the more you have, the more you profit you make. Thus it is often better to quickly sell some items in order to increase your total currency value (even at a loss of your theoretical currency/market value) as having currency allows you to make more profit than that damn StatTrak Butterfly Boreal Forest FT. You should try and sell at FP - 2, or sell it on the market. The potential future profit will eventually cover the losses incurred by this trade. This ensures a smooth flow of items in and out of your inventory, allowing for maximum profit. Selling Strategies: Generally skins are easier to sell, but have smaller profit margins, and knives are more profitable, but move a lot slower. Hence I will explain how I sell items, and recommend you do the same. Basically lets say you have some skins and knives. What your goal should be, if you want to make profit, is to eventually convert all these skins and knives into currency like keys or cash. How you do this is to downgrade. Downgrading is trading for slightly less desirable/valuable items alongside currency. What would be optimal is that someone will offer your buyout in keys, however this rarely happens (and is often leading to a scam attempt), so you need to take a relatively big item, and break it down into smallemore liquid bits. When you are offered items, take an offer that is similar in value if it has highly liquid items (such as betting skins, keys, vanilla knives, cheap 'entry level' knives around ~20-30k) over an 'overpay' offer of something that is hard to sell (stat-trak low tier knives, battle-scarred high tier knives, case hardeneds). It is often easier to sell two low-mid tier knives than one high tier knife. People who trade at a lower level, I suggest you upgrade, like trade two $1.25 skins for $2.50 one, as then you can trade for a key and possibly buy a $3 item, etc. The way I actually see it is like nuclear fusion/fission, just an analogy for you physics and chem nerds :3. Elements which are heavy release energy when split by fission (trade expensive items into multiple cheaper items), and elemental which are light, gain energy by fusion (trade a few cheap items into a reasonable item). When trading an item with a high variance in price, you want to be moving towards either end. I'll give an example. A Karambit Fade FN with 60% purple/40% pink goes for around 250k. This is highly demanded as it's the cheapest you can get of the item. A Kara Fade with 90% Pink/10% yellow goes for ~500 keys and is also highly demanded as it's the best you can get. So if you had a Kara Fade 80/15/5 (~320k), you would want to downgrade to a 60/40 + 70 keys and if you had a 90/7/3 (~450k) you would want to upgrade to a 90/10. This concept mainly applies for fades, but can also be used in other patterns. Conclusion: Damn I just wrote that in one sitting, start to finish. If only I had the motivation for my uni work. Feel free to share this guide with your friends and fellow traders. Peace, Horrorshow Flux
A cryptoforker's guide to free money - Part 1 (The holy ymgve script + what and where to exchange)
EDIT: a new version of this guide, multilingual and featuring a wallet checker (input your IP, see what you can fork and how much it is worth) is available at https://cryptodom.org
Hello my lovely forkers! A while ago I made a post A cryptoforker's guide to free money - Part 2 (Coinomi, Bither, Bitpie, Walleting Services) where I explained how I used a combination of COINOMI and BITPIE (together with DIG WALLETING SERVICES) to get hold of most forked coins - And then how I sold them (main sites used: GATE.IO / BTCTRADE.COM / BIT-Z.COM / EXRATES.ME / COINEX.COM). Please refer to that for the instructions regarding Bither and Coinomi. QUICK NOTE: If you are a seasoned forker, just look at point 4 and see if your pokem… I mean fork coins collection is complete :-p / If instead you are a total newbie, remember you can just do the “PREPARATION” part and then claim through DIG WALLETING (affiliate link: https://dig.walleting.services/#/aff/o5YP75ALDORdaAbmrJJx NON affiliate link: https://dig.walleting.services/# ) if the process is too hard/long/risky - these guys are reliable and provide a great service, especially for those who have a plethora of transactions and would need to hunt down every last key manually - they have a Reddit, too: you can reach them at Walleting_Services . BEFORE YOU START: What is a fork? Is it really free money? Imagine you had a bank account at BTCbank and a card for it. Tomorrow BTCbank splits and half of its branches become BTC2bank. Nothing changes for you as a client of BTCbank, however there is something you can now do. You can move your money from your BTCbank account to a new BTCbank account, in practice making the card for your former account useless in the BTNbank branches but… NOT IN THE BTN2bank branches! So you can go there and get the equivalent of what you had in “free” money. Nothing illegal, nothing shady, no bugs or exploits: it’s all there by design. Keeping with the example though, it should be specified that you must have the “card” of your BTCbank, which in this case is a private key. If you have your BTC stored on papehardware wallet or anywhere else where you are in direct control of your private keys, well done! Those keys are your BTCbank card(s). If, on the other hand, you held your money on an exchange (Binance, Bitfinex, Bittrex, you name it), then your only chance is to wait and hope that the exchange decides to support the coin and gives you your share. It’s not impossible but it introduces a middleman. It’s like you are asking your uncle to have an account in his name at BTCbank and there is no guarantee that uncle will go to a new branch of BTNbank2 and use the card trick to get the free money and give it to you, no matter how much you ask him to. He could do it, he could not: it’s uncle’s call. PREPARATION: First of all, a question: are you after the fork money to exchange it yourself or do you just want to claim it but want someone else to do all the exchange part for you? If you want to squeeze every last bit out of it, get ready to sign up to a few Chinese exchanges! You might as well do this now before you start, otherwise you’ll get stuck at the cashing part. Same goes for the script. No target address, no script. I warned you :) Anyway, here’s the list: • GATE.IO • BTCTRADE.IM • COINEX.COM • EXRATES.ME • TRADESATOSHI.COM • BIT-Z.COM My personal favourite is GATE.IO, despite the 60 confirmations (up to 14 hours), but they all helped me one way or another, and most importantly they all allow withdrawal (BTCTRADE.IM wanted verification papers, the others didn’t). Also, make sure to have Coinomi, Bither and Bitpie installed on an Android phone. STEP 1 - THE GOLDEN RULE Just like in the previous post, let me start off by warning everyone: what are you about to do is dangerous. You could lose your bitcoins. Are you scared? You should be, cause the threat is real. Nobody wants to lose 1 BTC to try and claim a few tens/hundreds of dollars, right? So, first and foremost, make sure that you MOVE your coins from wherever they are (ideally, an offline wallet like a ledger or a trezor), and then, once the wallet is empty, feel free to play around with its private keys, that will hopefully show some transferrable balance at the time of the fork. STEP 2 - GETTING YOUR KEYS - https://iancoleman.io/bip39/ For getting the keys, this is your number one option - with an offline version for paranoid available, no less. Use the seed (those 24 words in the case of ledger, for example) and after the calculation go get your keys in the chart at the end of the page. In case you have segwit addresses or special scenarios (like a wallet with a lot of operations over a long time), getting the keys, or the “right” keys, might take a while. Anyway: let’s look at the first line of the chart. In the first column you will find the address: copy and paste it onto https://blockchain.info/ and press enter to get the transaction history for that given address. Let’s suppose for the sake of this example that our address shows 2 transactions: one inbound for 2 BTC 1 year ago and anther one for the outgoing BTC 5 minutes ago (because before we started this we DID move them out, right?!?). What that means is that at the time of the forkS (in this case we’d get money from most of them) we had 2 BTC on that address. Great, so it’s loaded, and we need its key. Let’s go back to the chart on line one and let’s have a look at the third column: this is our private key. We will use it later to sweep or import in the various method outlined. STEP 3 - THE SCRIPT - https://github.com/ymgve/bitcoin_fork_claimer If you have ben around this subreddit long enough you surely read about the script… And spared a tender thought for ymgve who made this possible. Yet, no one really explains properly how to use it. Unfortunately I do not have the time to explain how to get python installed and running on a machine, you will have to figure it out on your own. Same goes for the fact that you might need to write “py” or “python” before the actual “claimer.py (…)” command. Let’s say you somehow get ready to run the script - now you do have a series of examples on the github page, but they are not so easy to understand for the uninitiated. Here is the relevant quote: In blockchain.info mode it uses the blockchain.info API to query and validate information about the transaction you're spending from. This only works for transferring/claiming coins that existed on the BTC main chain pre-fork. SYNTAX: * claimer.py
A Bitcoin primer (please help critique this draft)
UPDATE Finally published! http://rudd-o.com/archives/what-is-bitcoin I am writing a very elementary explanation of Bitcoin, explicitly geared to people who know nothing about it, but know how to use a wallet and paper money, and read/write at 6th grade level. Please critique this writeup. I'll be posting it on a site of mine with thanks to everyone who helps me improve it.
What is Bitcoin?
Bitcoin is money. People give stuff to you, and you give them Bitcoins. You give stuff to people, and they give you Bitcoins. That is: you can buy and sell things using Bitcoins.
How does it work?
It's actually pretty simple. Let's say you want to buy a banana from a farmer's market, using Bitcoins instead of dollars. You have a Bitcoin wallet. You carry some Bitcoins in it. The farmer also has a Bitcoin wallet. His wallet has an address (or more) tied to it. Bitcoins sent to that address appear in his wallet. You ask the farmer to buy one of the bananas. The farmer says, "Sure, it'll be 1 Bitcoin" and hands his wallet address to you. You give 1 Bitcoin from your wallet to that address; this transfers your Bitcoin from your wallet to his wallet. He gives you the banana. That's it. Now you have your banana, and the farmer has his Bitcoin. If you want to get paid, this works exactly the same but in reverse. You give your address to the other guy, and he sends Bitcoins to that address. You can even give a different address to each person. This is usually a good idea.
Isn't that a bit complicated?
At a glance, Bitcoin does sound more difficult to use than cash. But in practice, the farmer won't actually give you a long number in a paper card. What he'll do is he'll show you a barcode. You'll take a picture of it with your Bitcoin wallet in your phone, key in a number of Bitcoins to send, then tap "Send". As you can see, this is faster than opening the register and making change for cash. It's also faster than keying in your debit card PIN, if you pay with a card. So, what if you're buying things with your computer? Then you will copy the address of the sender to your clipboard, and paste it on the Send box of your Bitcoin wallet. And what if you don't have your computer with you? No problem. There are several Web sites that can keep your Bitcoins stored in "online wallets". With them, you can send and receive Bitcoins to other people and between your other wallets too. And if you don't have a phone or a computer with you, you can pay with physical Bitcoins too.
How do I get one of these Bitcoin wallets? Are they expensive?
Bitcoin wallets are usually free. You get a wallet by:
Installing a computer program in your computer.
Getting an app for your phone.
Opening an online account in any of the Web sites offering wallets.
You can have more than one wallet. You can freely move your money between your wallets, just as easily as you can send money to someone else. There are also companies that sell physical Bitcoins. These are actual coins with a redeemable Bitcoin address inside them, good for as many Bitcoins as you choose. You do have to pay a bit of a premium for them, but they work if there's no electricity where you are.
Why not just use a credit or debit card?
Cards involve a middle man called a "credit card processor". This middle man complicates everything for everyone.
Bitcoins work worldwide, without currency conversion or international payment fees.
If you're selling stuff: you have to pay the middle man a very high fee (~3%) on every sale you make. You also need special equipment. This agreement limits what you can sell, and how you can sell it. You also have to prepare for people who dispute payments, especially from stolen cards. If you're buying stuff: you end up paying extra money because of the difficulty added by the middle man. If you want to just send or receive money: you simply can't do that with a credit card. You could "give" money to a friend by buying him dinner. But what if you want to, say, sell a computer to him? Now he has to withdraw cash from an ATM (inconvenient), or use PayPal (and pay a fee)... it's a mess. "I'll pay you later" turns into "meh, I'll buy it from the store". And if you're abroad: your card will usually let you buy stuff, but you will be paying through the nose in middle man fees. If you use and accept Bitcoin, none of this is a problem. All you need is a Bitcoin wallet, and presto. It works everywhere. So why involve a middle man at all?
Isn't cash safer? What about credit cards?
Bitcoin is safer than cash and cards. Let's compare. A thief who steals your regular wallet can ruin your credit statements and spend your cash freely. Not so with Bitcoin. Bitcoin wallets can be protected by a password; the thief can't pry your Bitcoin wallet open, and your Bitcoins can be recovered if you backed up your wallet. Why would a thief steal something he can't use? This is especially true of PayPass ("wireless" or "no-swipe") credit cards. Clever thieves can wirelessly swipe everything from those, just by walking near you. Name, home address, card number, expiration date and security code. This can't be done to Bitcoin wallets. About the only thing that someone could steal from you and then spend, is physical Bitcoins. They are like cash in that sense.
Why should I use Bitcoin rather than, say, dollars or Euros?
You don't have to choose one or the other. For example, you can buy or sell some things using dollars, and other things using Bitcoins. You can buy and sell Bitcoins for dollars too. In fact, you can trade Bitcoins using practically any major currency out there. Also, you can "top up" your Bitcoin wallet at many online places. But the best reason to buy and use Bitcoins is actually unique to Bitcoin: they cannot be "made up" by punching numbers on a computer or a printer, and they cannot be counterfeited either. Thus, Bitcoin protects your money much better than any other currency. See, with any other national currency in the world, the Central Bank of that country can (and often does) arbitrarily "make up" more and more money. This means that the money you saved is worth less and less as time goes by. Remember that $50 supermarket bill last year? Today, you're either paying $80 or getting less food. Tell me it ain't true. This gradual but terrible tragedy simply can't happen with Bitcoin. Bitcoin has a hard mathematical limit. This limit cannot be fooled by any means. Not by a Central Bank, and not by a private counterfeiter either.
I have some Bitcoins now. How were they made?
Bitcoins aren't made by anyone. They are "mined" (like gold in the real world, or diamond in Minecraft). "Mining" is a mathematical race. It's about randomly guessing big numbers and doing calculations with them. Whoever gets to an undiscovered number first, "wins" the race. Everybody else in the race uses the same math to verify the win. Then the winning miner gets some confirmed Bitcoins. As you might have guessed, numbers games are best played with computers, and lots of people (called "miners") happily play it. They play it for two reasons:
To win newly "mined" Bitcoins.
To confirm and profit from Bitcoin transfers that pay (very small) fees.
As time goes by, "mining" gets harder and gives miners fewer coins. The Bitcoin system does this to prevent newer and faster computers from mining too many coins at once.
Why can't anyone just "invent" their own Bitcoins and throw them into the world?
The short answer is: Because Bitcoins must be "mined". Mining involves very hard math that cannot be faked. The somewhat longer answer is: Bitcoins mined with one computer are checked by millions of other computers to see if they are genuine. The mined Bitcoins are only valid after several computers confirm "yes, these Bitcoins are genuine". The checker computers verify that the mined Bitcoins:
didn't re-use previously discovered numbers
didn't use fraudulent or faulty calculations
Checking Bitcoins for authenticity is much, much faster than mining. It's much like checking a password -- it's also much faster than trying to guess it.
How many Bitcoins are there?
Right now, about 8 million Bitcoins have been mined. The hard limit is 21 million. 99% of it will be mined by 2036, according to estimates.
Only 21 million? Bah, that's not nearly enough for the entire world!
Unlike dollars (with 100 cents to a dollar), Bitcoins can be divided beyond millionths. The smallest amount of money you can make with Bitcoins goes down to 8 decimal places. There's no practical reason why a pack of gum can't cost 5 microBitcoins (μBTC). If 1¢ was equivalent to 0.01 μBTC, then:
$1 would be worth $1 μBTC,
$1,000 would be 1 mBTC (milliBitcoins),
a million dollars would be 1 Bitcoin,
a billion would be 1,000 Bitcoins (U.S. "billions" here, sorry for that),
a trillion would be 1,000,000 Bitcoins,
21 trillions would be 21,000,000 Bitcoins (the total carrying capacity of Bitcoins),
And that's just for Bitcoins themselves. The amount of debts and promises to pay Bitcoins has no limit, just like it doesn't have any limit with any currency today. Now that you know this... 1 Bitcoin sounds like a helluva lot of money to pay for a banana, right?
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