Bitcoin Era 🥇 ™ The Official Trademark Bitcoin Era App 2020

Fatum, vol. 1 [Chapters 6 - 8]

Chapter 0, Chapter 1, Chapters 2,3, Chapter 4 - 5.4
Chapter 6
One of the main reasons suicide is so upsetting for people is because of finances. Dying is really quite expensive from burials to funerals, to receptions; then there are the accessories that come with death: having your corpse beautified, the nice wooden bed they make to lower your body into the ground, and the cute stone head that has your date of birth, date of death, and name on it. And someone has to get paid decently for these things, as dealing with dead bodies can be troublesome for a lot of people. So these expenses add up, and when you kill yourself you tack on a slew of unexpected debts that someone will have to pay for, it just won’t be you. He chose to treat his death a little differently.
At her workstation, Bell has a distinct coldness in her voice. She swivels around in her chair absent-mindedly, half- heartedly hoping that somehow an Earthly force would relieve her of these arbitrary responsibilities. She begins to space out, as So Many Details by Toro Y Moi blasts off of her Alexa. Revisiting her past life before meeting Him, she remembers always being curious about exploring the world and getting to learn more about how the human mind worked in a collective form. Their first meeting was one where she found herself unable to reign in her curiosity. Even during His prepubescent years, He was clearly the master of His own universe, figuratively, and she picked up on this immediately. They spent the entire night, until their bedtimes at least, getting to know one another. Finding and appreciating both similarities and differences right off the bat probably had a lot to do with the relationship they shared.
But Bell’s existence was also necessary. Although she is blissfully unaware, her companionship with Him is what sparked His deep dive into answers for reasons of existence. She holds herself morally and emotionally liable for His suicide, consistently flashing back to the last words she said to him while he was alive:
““You never loved me, if you do this, you could have never loved me.””
Thinking aloud, startled by the sound of emotion in her own voice,
“So stupid. I’m so stupid. He tells me this is His last day on Earth and I immediately tried to emotionally blackmail him. He really prepared all of us for His departure, but I was never ready to let Him go. I still am not ready, but I know He loved me and I loved Him so I will follow His final instructions. Alexa, activate Protocol Stardust.”
“Searching... Protocol Stardust located. My condolences, Bell.”
“Thanks Alexa but He recommended I turn down condolences. He never wanted people to be sad over His death...”
“Protocol Stardust... 10% Loaded.”
“I just really can’t believe it’s actually happening. I would make a bad habit of indulging with Him in His laughter when we talked about it.”
“Protocol Stardust... 30% Loaded.”
“I mean, who thinks like that? Who even jokes like that? To have your body cremated is one thing, but then to have your ashes spread out into space?”
“Protocol Stardust... 50% Loaded.”
“And then the Bastard went and accommodated Himself. Every time someone would mention the implausibility of His plan He was so calmly confident He would be able to achieve it before His last day.”
“Protocol Stardust... 70% Loaded.”
“Of course He succeeded. All of our fates were sealed when He talked his mom into getting him his first Raspberry Pi. He cashed out in cryptocurrency and had been living on His own time ever since, like some character out of a movie.”
“Protocol Stardust... 99% Loaded.”
“I miss you so much.”
“Protocol Stardust Ready to Execute. Please Provide Final Voice Confirmation.”
The glass finish on her iPhone X felt impossibly smooth in her palm. She chuckled to herself slightly, thinking back to when the iPhone X was first announced and how He had lost His cool that Apple stole the aesthetic from his niche YouTube channel to market the new phone. She knew no one would believe Him, but she genuinely did. She was right to, because maybe they did, but now it seemed like an even greater injustice against His reality that she didn’t fight harder. It wouldn’t have been what He wanted anyway. She positions her phone's camera to catch enough of her facial profile to utilize Face ID. Gently tapping the screen with her thumb, as if to nudge the device awake, the screen glows bright yellow with the custom parallax wallpaper He had designed for her. The text was placed perfect center, reading out ‘“DEATH IS ARTIFICIAL”, with a 1 px fill line striking through the circle of letters, highlighting a hidden message: ‘”DEATH IS ART’”.
Chapter 7
“I can’t believe this shit.”
“Honey, relax. You know He’ll make you whole.”
“Please don’t refer to Him and holes in the same sentence.”
“You're being immature. I know it’s still touchy.”
“I really didn’t think it would bother me as much as it does. I love Him but He takes it too far.”
Blood recirculating into his wrists, Ohsa rubs them gently with his index and middle fingers to soothe himself, because of both the grueling discomfort he had just endured and because of his own doubts if his Friend would be okay.
“Thank goodness you reminded me we were out of pesto sauce. Who knows what would’ve happened if He saw me.”
“What’s that supposed to mean?”
“It means he could’ve tied both of us up and left us here.”
“Oh.”
“This is the last time I go through this: I was down with the orgy but as soon as He got close to me my senses were completely overwhelmed. His words felt like silk flowing into my ears, and the way He smelled – my God His smell,”
“...You said you had felt like you had become a different person.”
Catching herself she resumes, “Yes but no. Now that I think about it, it wasn’t that I was a different person. I was still me, completely me, rolling me, but He was just purely irresistible in that moment. Whoever slept with Him, though, was not the woman that loves you.”
“How do I know you’re not lying?”
“Because I’m trying to communicate with you about it, as opposed to shifting blame. Listen honey, He fucked the shit out of me in the middle of an orgy of people. I can’t stand here and pretend like it didn’t happen or I didn’t enjoy it or I had been so drugged up I didn’t know what I was doing. But when it happened it did, and I was there.”
“What the fuck. I can’t think about this right now. What the hell happened out there? I felt two separate explosions while I was tied up.”
“He destroyed the elevator shaft and the entire left side of the hallway, including part of the door to the stairway. My Twitter Moments feed is saying at least 4 SWAT officers are reported to be in critical condition.”
“What is He thinking?! How is killing cops supposed to help His cool down??”
“Don’t you think He’s been acting a little too wild lately?”
“I’ve seen Him comeback from worse, honestly.”
“Worse than a killing spree?”
“No, I meant drug-wise.”
“Was He high when you saw him?”
“He was definitely on the comedown. I don’t think He was actively stoned but he wasn’t entirely sober, either.”
“Well, regardless he was clear-headed enough to stay ahead of the cops.”
“Cops are fucking idiots.”
Chapter 8
We never know what the future is until we get there. We like to imagine it as augmented reality everywhere, digital on top of reality, seamlessly intertwined together, persisting without being invasive. The truth is, the future is now. All time, past, present, and future, all exist tangentially and concurrently to each other. The 2008 American Recession hit Bell’s parents where it mattered the most: Their bank accounts. It hit at the least opportune time, right as they were preparing to make a class transition from poverty-level to lower middle class. Not only was their savings obliterated, but their morale too. Maybe this spiritual blow was exactly what she needed, maybe it was another unnecessary inconvenience that came with simply trying to exist as a human, but earlier that year she had her first meeting with Him.
Even as children, Him and Bell always had a special connection. Everyone around them could see as clear as day, that these two were in love, even before they knew it for themselves. Almost a year ago to the day, He had made a discovery. Bitcoin was going to crash, and it was going to crash hard. It was clearly being inflated by whales who were egging on spectators but He correctly assumed that the dramatic rise had gotten way too out of hand for anyone to control. Come end of November under the guise of Christmas spirit he traded all of his leftover Team Fortress 2 hats, convincing other players to complete trades in crypto, tricking those who were ignorant to the true value of BTC. He had already amassed a sizeable enough wallet during His early mining days but that extra week of trading is what took him from safety to comfort.
In literally the exact moment the BTC exchange rate was estimated at $20,500 for one coin, he cashed in his entire wallet of 14,634.14163414 Bitcoin, becoming a multi-millionaire overnight, having earned a net worth just shy of $300 Million USD. He excitedly made his first phone call of the night reaching out to Bell.
“Hey Siri, call Bell.”
“Calling Bell – Mobile”
“Hey, what’s up?”
“Not too much. What’s up with you?”
“Oh nothing, just getting ready for bed. I have work early in the afternoon tomorrow but I want to try to get to the gym in the morning. The only way I won’t be exhausted is if I go to sleep now.”
“Yeah, that's cool. Hypothetically, yeah, if your time wasn’t filled up with working a menial job, what would you do?”
“Honestly I’d love to finish getting my Graduate’s degree, maybe go back to China. I loved my time in Undergrad but it was so tough that I really needed a break. It’s just been so jarring to me how difficult it’s been to get back into academia now that I’m in the real world, you know?”
“OK.”
“What’s up with you? Got some exciting plans for the night? You always have crazy shenanigans under your belt.”
“I swear it just happens to me by accident, but yeah. I’m planning on blowing someone’s mind tonight.”
“Ooh lucky them! What’re you gonna do? A surprise visit? Or buy them a gift? Or is it a secret?”
“It won’t be a secret much longer, I just wanted you to know first.”
“Know what first?”
“I’m filthy rich Bell.”
“What?”
“I’m sitting on a few hundred million dollars.”
“WHAT?”
“What country are you from?”
“What?”
Getting comfortable with his Samuel L. Jackson impersonation, he raises his tone: “’What’ ain’t no country I ever heard of! They speak English in ‘What’?!”
Familiar with the reference but still reeling from the news, Bell plays right into his prank.
“...What?”
“English motherfucker! Do you speak it?!”
“Yes!”
“Then you know what I’m saying?”
“Yes!”
Getting as far as he needed to with the joke, he lets out a boisterous hearty laugh and continues the conversation, back to his usual austere speaking voice.
“Relax, love. Quit your job. Enroll in any school you want. Find a new apartment. Order a mani-pedi to a five star hotel, and then stand up your appointment to go to the casino. Your old life is over.”
Thumb to screen, end call. Before the Phone app can finish spelling out “call ended”, he quickly double taps the home button, finding his Messages app open right behind Notes and Voice Memos. A single text to Bell goes out; to let her know that this is the difference, this is what separates the wheat from the chaff, to let her know that she is now wheat and no longer chaff:
“Painted ultrapure white walls triple coated, a high ceiling, in-wall light fixtures, foliage incorporated into the architecture, soft-close furnishings, and lastly location, location, location.”
Bell takes a moment to read the text. Her mind still, but her heart beating faster, the news truly settling in for the first time. She begins to sob uncontrollably.
submitted by viliscane to libraryofshadows [link] [comments]

All The Longreads (So Far)

I'm trying to work on a system that would pull only the longreads links out and shove them into their own RSS feed. It's super hacky and embarrassing and all the other things that prevent people from sharing code (I will eventually, I promise...it's only 11 lines of python right now). But, I should at least share all the links, by date, in a post. Please enjoy all the longreads:
Tue, 20 Nov 2018 21:56:00 -0000 * How The Wall Street Journal is preparing its journalists to detect deepfakes * Self-driving trucks in US offer window into where machines may replace humans * When Elon Musk Tunnels Under Your Home * The Case Against Quantum Computing * HOW GOOGLE AND AMAZON GOT AWAY WITH NOT BEING REGULATED * How to Use an iPod Touch as a Secure Device Instead of a Phone * Scientists say goodbye to physical definition of the kilogram
Fri, 16 Nov 2018 22:15:10 -0000 * THE GENIUS NEUROSCIENTIST WHO MIGHT HOLD THE KEY TO TRUE AI * Are Killer Robots the Future of War? Parsing the Facts on Autonomous Weapons * The Internet Has a Huge C/C++ Problem and Developers Don't Want to Deal With It * How Superhuman Built an Engine to Find Product/Market Fit * THE HAIL MARY PLAN TO RESTART A HACKED US ELECTRIC GRID * Space Camp grows up
Fri, 09 Nov 2018 21:56:00 -0000 * Why Technology Favors Tyranny * Tech C.E.O.s Are in Love With Their Principal Doomsayer * HQ Trivia was a blockbuster hit — but internal turmoil and a shrinking audience have pushed its company to the brink * ‘It’s Giant and Has Like Five Million Buttons.’ The Office Desk Phone Won’t Die * Why Doctors Hate Their Computers * Here Comes ‘Smart Dust,’ the Tiny Computers That Pull Power from the Air * ASTRONOMERS SEE MATERIAL ORBITING A BLACK HOLE RIGHT AT THE EDGE OF FOREVER
Fri, 02 Nov 2018 20:56:00 -0000 * The Facebook Dilemma, Part 1 * The Facebook Dilemma, Part 2 * A Cryptocurrency Millionaire Wants to Build a Utopia in Nevada * The Man Behind the Scooter Revolution * A Fork in the Road for Avis * The Encyclopedia of the Missing
Fri, 26 Oct 2018 20:56:00 -0000 * Inside Rockstar Games' Culture Of Crunch * At Netflix, Radical Transparency and Blunt Firings Unsettle the Ranks * Podcast on Netflix Culture * It Might Get Loud: Inside Silicon Valley’s Battle to Own Voice Tech * How Dara Khosrowshahi’s Iranian heritage shapes how he leads Uber * AN ALTERNATIVE HISTORY OF SILICON VALLEY DISRUPTION
Fri, 05 Oct 2018 20:56:00 -0000 * The iPhone XS & XS Max Review: Unveiling the Silicon Secrets * Sex Workers Pioneered the Early Internet—and It Screwed Them Over * Raised by YouTube * Old Unicorn, New Tricks: Airbnb Has A Sky-High Valuation. Here's Its Audacious Plan To Earn It * EA announces ‘FIFA 19’ PS4 esports tournament
Fri, 28 Sep 2018 20:56:00 -0000 * How Uber is getting flying cars off the ground * Coinbase Wants To Be Too Big To Fail * The Apple Watch – Tipping Point Time for Healthcare * Meet the Community Keeping Obsolete Supercomputers Alive * The first Android phone 10 years later: An annotated review * Hacker says he'll livestream deletion of Zuckerberg's Facebook page
Fri, 21 Sep 2018 20:46:00 -0000 * Inside Facebook’s Election ‘War Room’ * Bitcoin Miners Flock to New York’s Remote Corners, but Get Chilly Reception * Living The Stream * A brief history of the numeric keypad * Inside the Dramatic, Painful--and Hugely Successful--Return of Reddit's Founders
Fri, 14 Sep 2018 20:55:47 -0000 * Android 9 Pie, thoroughly reviewed * Why a Leading Venture Capitalist Is Betting on a Decentralized Internet * Olaf Carlson-Wee Rode the Bitcoin Boom to Silicon Valley Riches. Can He Survive the Crash? * Memo to the Silicon Valley boys’ club: Arlan Hamilton has no time for your BS * Driverless Hype Collides With Merciless Reality
Fri, 07 Sep 2018 21:02:25 -0000 * Inside the World of Eddy Cue, Apple’s Services Chief * Bezos Unbound: Exclusive Interview With The Amazon Founder On What He Plans To Conquer Next * The Super Rich of Silicon Valley Have a Doomsday Escape Plan * What went wrong at Social Capital * How Android Pie’s Adaptive Battery and Adaptive Brightness work * The man who won the lottery 14 times
Fri, 31 Aug 2018 20:56:00 -0000 * Franken-algorithms: the deadly consequences of unpredictable code * Logged off: meet the teens who refuse to use social media * How Big Tech Swallowed Seattle * The Mystery of People Who Speak Dozens of Languages
Fri, 17 Aug 2018 20:56:00 -0000 * VIRGIN GALACTIC’S ROCKET MAN * Inside Evernote’s brain * LET’S ALL GO BACK TO TUMBLR * Why Can’t Europe Do Tech? * To Get Ready for Robot Driving, Some Want to Reprogram Pedestrians
Fri, 03 Aug 2018 20:56:00 -0000 * How Robot Hands Are Evolving to Do What Ours Can * Why the Next Silicon Valley Will Probably Be Outside the U.S. * Masayoshi Son’s secret to running his $100 billion fund: Telling start-ups to treat each other like family * What Happened to General Magic? * Growing Up Jobs
Fri, 27 Jul 2018 20:56:00 -0000 * Brock Pierce: The Hippie King of Cryptocurrency * How Silicon Valley Has Disrupted Philanthropy * THE 'GUERRILLA' WIKIPEDIA EDITORS WHO COMBAT CONSPIRACY THEORIES * Inside Google’s Shadow Workforce * MySpace and the Coding Legacy it Left Behind
Fri, 13 Jul 2018 20:55:00 -0000 * Hell for Elon Musk Is a Midsize Sedan * How Twitter Became Home to the Teen Status Update * Why Some of Instagram's Biggest Memers Are Locking Their Accounts * GEORGE HOTZ IS ON A HACKER CRUSADE AGAINST THE ‘SCAM’ OF SELF-DRIVING CARS * THE ONLY GOOD ONLINE FANDOM LEFT IS DUNE * Netflix Isn’t Being Reckless, It’s Just Playing a Game No One Else Dares (Netflix Misunderstandings, Pt. 3)
Fri, 22 Jun 2018 20:50:39 -0000 * How Twitter Made The Tech World's Most Unlikely Comeback * The Legend of Nintendo * Intel now faces a fight for its future * INSIDE THE CRYPTO WORLD'S BIGGEST SCANDAL
Fri, 08 Jun 2018 20:57:00 -0000 * ‘I can understand about 50 percent of the things you say’: How Congress is struggling to get smart on tech * The Twitter crime mystery that gripped Spain * Meet the people who still use Myspace: 'It's given me so much joy' * Exploring The Digital Ruins Of 'Second Life' * Why Aren’t We All Buying Houses on the Internet?
Fri, 01 Jun 2018 20:57:00 -0000 * Obama's US Digital Service Survives Trump—Quietly * he Search for Women Who Want Cybersecurity Careers * How Futures Trading Changed Bitcoin Prices * The Growing Emptiness of the "Star Wars" Universe
Fri, 11 May 2018 20:57:00 -0000 * Don't Skype Me: How Microsoft Turned Consumers Against a Beloved Brand * How to Make Your Open Office Less Annoying * The 15 People Who Keep Wikipedia’s Editors From Killing Each Other * The Wealthy Are Hoarding $10 Billion of Bitcoin in Bunkers * Supercomputers are driving a revolution in hurricane forecasting
Fri, 04 May 2018 20:57:00 -0000 * ‘Hi, It’s Amazon Calling. Here’s What We Don’t Like in Your City.’ * Over 400 Startups Are Trying to Become the Next Warby Parker. Inside the Wild Race to Overthrow Every Consumer Category * All We Want to Do Is Watch Each Other Play Video Games * CoinTalk
Fri, 27 Apr 2018 20:30:29 -0000 * Inside Jeff Bezos’s DC Life * Hulu Beyond 'Handmaid's Tale': Execs and Stars on a Promising Yet Uncertain Future * Can Silicon Valley Get You Pregnant? * You could be flirting on dating apps with paid impersonators
Fri, 06 Apr 2018 21:05:17 -0000 * Lawyer bots take the hassle out of fighting parking tickets and property taxes — and could cost local governments real revenue * How Europe’s new privacy rule is reshaping the internet * Checking in with the Facebook fact-checking partnership * A 200-Year-Old Idea Offers A New Way to Trace Stolen Bitcoins * South Korean millennials are reeling from the Bitcoin bust
submitted by berrydewd to RideHome [link] [comments]

How To Get DogeCoin to the Moon (An Online Marketer's Perspective)

I have a ton of faith in DogeCoin. I just made a post about how I invested in 4 million DogeCoins over the past week.
From a purely marketing perspective, I'd like to point out what I like about DogeCoin, What makes it stand out, and easily actionable ways to get DogeCoin used more readily.
A tad bit about my background:
I have built a social media following of over 10 million fans from scratch
I have built a Youtube channel with 600 subscribers and 70,000 views
I have created an Android app that has hit 15k downloads, and an iPhone app that is just about to hit 10k downloads

WHAT DOGECOIN HAS OVER OTHER CURRENCIES

  1. A passionate and rapidly growing fanbase
Seriously, this community is awesome. The response to the Christmas DogeCoin scam is amazing. If that happened with Bitcoin, most people would have shrugged and moved on. But the response here was incredible and shows that most people here realize that trust in the community is the most important thing to getting DogeCoin to grow.
  1. A relatable attachment to an adorable meme
This is perfect for attracting attention to DogeCoin and the crypto currency world as a whole. Seth Godin states in his book "Purple Cow" that the most important thing in marketing is to make you product "remarkable" - something worth making a remark about. And the fact is, DogeCoin is fun! I can't help sharing the fact that I own DogeCoin with everyone. Many of these conversations are with people that wouldn't even care to hear about Bitcoin. But after a couple minutes of educating them, there responses are "I want some DogeCoins!" The Dogecoin community has a bigger mission than DogeCoin itself. Dogecoin is a great way to bring awareness to the cryptocurrency world as a whole!
  1. There's plenty of DogeCoin on the market (100 billion coin cap)
The psychological factor of owning 10,000 DogeCoin is pretty exciting. Heck, I bought enough to become a DogeCoin millionaire (which is pretty fun to say! :P ). I think Bitcoin had it right with 21 million total coins at first since demand was so small. But with the advancement in the awareness of cryptocurrencies, I feel Dogecoin has hit the sweet spot. Everyone can own quite a bit, and its easy to spread around (whereas hoarding might occur when someone owns only 1 or 2 bitcoins).

STEPS TO TAKE DOGECOIN TO THE MOON!

Obviously, the goal is getting DogeCoin into more and more peoples hands. And the way to do that is with more socially acceptable opportunities for transactions to occur.
I've seen quite a few posts about people looking to make Dogecoin accepted on more websites/stores. Based on ways I've made my social presence gain traction, here's my game plan:
  1. Get DogeCoin to be accepted by charities
The awesome thing about charities accepting DogeCoin is that it is a win-win-win all around!
DogeCoin has a generous community. I'm sure many here would love to donate to a good cause and also spread the usefulness of DogeCoin. Charities that get in early on this will get tons of publicity and also eager supporters willing to participate.
Also, a charity doesn't have to have a strict "dogecoin to dollar" conversion program like a store would that sells items (the changing volatility of cryptocurrency wouldn't matter for donations).
Plus, getting more and more charities to use DogeCoin will give us traction and "social proof" that the currency is being used. This can get larger companies to be more open to the idea in the near future.
  1. Get DogeCoin to be used by gamers
This has already been done by some SC2 players, which is great! Having a Dogecoin prize pool for games would really spread the word. It's free marketing if players with tons of followers are playing for Dogecoin. It can also get people to add Dogecoin to the prize pool. much transaction.
This is like the charity aspect in that people don't have to convert "Dogecoin to Dollars" so the transaction can easily occur.
  1. Make a program that easily accepts Dogecoin and transfers them into dollars.
If someone can undertake this, it would GREATLY help dogecoin gain traction. If a store can easily and automatically accept Dogecoin at its current market rate, there would be a lot less hassle/pain to getting DogeCoin accepted.
  1. Contact businesses/stores already accepting Bitcoin.
The problem I run into with marketing and selling is, its tough to sell someone on an idea if they don't see or understand the value in it. If a store is already accepting Bitcoin, they understand and value cryptocurrencies. They should be much easier to pitch the idea to. If they see that there is a passionate DogeCoin community that is willing to purchase from them, it is a no brainer for them to set something up to accept DogeCoin as well as BitCoin
And finally...
  1. Tell More People!
Get more people excited about DogeCoin every day. I'm personally setting a goal to tell 3 new people about DogeCoin each day. Even if the person shrugs, they still have been exposed to it and will remember the next time they hear about DogeCoin. Many marketing studies have found people need to hear about something 4 to 5 times before it actually sinks in. It's our goal to be one of those 4 to 5 times!
Once these goals are achieved, the momentum of DogeCoin will be huge!
I have no doubt this currency will go to the moon.
I'd love to hear other's thoughts and ideas on how to grow DogeCoin as well! Let me know what you think :)
submitted by gambit2727 to dogecoin [link] [comments]

Is anyone else freaked out by this whole blocksize debate? Does anyone else find themself often agreeing with *both* sides - depending on whichever argument you happen to be reading at the moment? And do we need some better algorithms and data structures?

Why do both sides of the debate seem “right” to me?
I know, I know, a healthy debate is healthy and all - and maybe I'm just not used to the tumult and jostling which would be inevitable in a real live open major debate about something as vital as Bitcoin.
And I really do agree with the starry-eyed idealists who say Bitcoin is vital. Imperfect as it may be, it certainly does seem to represent the first real chance we've had in the past few hundred years to try to steer our civilization and our planet away from the dead-ends and disasters which our government-issued debt-based currencies keep dragging us into.
But this particular debate, about the blocksize, doesn't seem to be getting resolved at all.
Pretty much every time I read one of the long-form major arguments contributed by Bitcoin "thinkers" who I've come to respect over the past few years, this weird thing happens: I usually end up finding myself nodding my head and agreeing with whatever particular piece I'm reading!
But that should be impossible - because a lot of these people vehemently disagree!
So how can both sides sound so convincing to me, simply depending on whichever piece I currently happen to be reading?
Does anyone else feel this way? Or am I just a gullible idiot?
Just Do It?
When you first look at it or hear about it, increasing the size seems almost like a no-brainer: The "big-block" supporters say just increase the blocksize to 20 MB or 8 MB, or do some kind of scheduled or calculated regular increment which tries to take into account the capabilities of the infrastructure and the needs of the users. We do have the bandwidth and the memory to at least increase the blocksize now, they say - and we're probably gonna continue to have more bandwidth and memory in order to be able to keep increasing the blocksize for another couple decades - pretty much like everything else computer-based we've seen over the years (some of this stuff is called by names such as "Moore's Law").
On the other hand, whenever the "small-block" supporters warn about the utter catastrophe that a failed hard-fork would mean, I get totally freaked by their possible doomsday scenarios, which seem totally plausible and terrifying - so I end up feeling that the only way I'd want to go with a hard-fork would be if there was some pre-agreed "triggering" mechanism where the fork itself would only actually "switch on" and take effect provided that some "supermajority" of the network (of who? the miners? the full nodes?) had signaled (presumably via some kind of totally reliable p2p trustless software-based voting system?) that they do indeed "pre-agree" to actually adopt the pre-scheduled fork (and thereby avoid any possibility whatsoever of the precious blockchain somehow tragically splitting into two and pretty much killing this cryptocurrency off in its infancy).
So in this "conservative" scenario, I'm talking about wanting at least 95% pre-adoption agreement - not the mere 75% which I recall some proposals call for, which seems like it could easily lead to a 75/25 blockchain split.
But this time, with this long drawn-out blocksize debate, the core devs, and several other important voices who have become prominent opinion shapers over the past few years, can't seem to come to any real agreement on this.
Weird split among the devs
As far as I can see, there's this weird split: Gavin and Mike seem to be the only people among the devs who really want a major blocksize increase - and all the other devs seem to be vehemently against them.
But then on the other hand, the users seem to be overwhelmingly in favor of a major increase.
And there are meta-questions about governance, about about why this didn't come out as a BIP, and what the availability of Bitcoin XT means.
And today or yesterday there was this really cool big-blockian exponential graph based on doubling the blocksize every two years for twenty years, reminding us of the pure mathematical fact that 210 is indeed about 1000 - but not really addressing any of the game-theoretic points raised by the small-blockians. So a lot of the users seem to like it, but when so few devs say anything positive about it, I worry: is this just yet more exponential chart porn?
On the one hand, Gavin's and Mike's blocksize increase proposal initially seemed like a no-brainer to me.
And on the other hand, all the other devs seem to be against them. Which is weird - not what I'd initially expected at all (but maybe I'm just a fool who's seduced by exponential chart porn?).
Look, I don't mean to be rude to any of the core devs, and I don't want to come off like someone wearing a tinfoil hat - but it has to cross people's minds that the powers that be (the Fed and the other central banks and the governments that use their debt-issued money to run this world into a ditch) could very well be much more scared shitless than they're letting on. If we assume that the powers that be are using their usual playbook and tactics, then it could be worth looking at the book "Confessions of an Economic Hitman" by John Perkins, to get an idea of how they might try to attack Bitcoin. So, what I'm saying is, they do have a track record of sending in "experts" to try to derail projects and keep everyone enslaved to the Creature from Jekyll Island. I'm just saying. So, without getting ad hominem - let's just make sure that our ideas can really stand scrutiny on their own - as Nick Szabo says, we need to make sure there is "more computer science, less noise" in this debate.
When Gavin Andresen first came out with the 20 MB thing - I sat back and tried to imagine if I could download 20 MB in 10 minutes (which seems to be one of the basic mathematical and technological constraints here - right?)
I figured, "Yeah, I could download that" - even with my crappy internet connection.
And I guess the telecoms might be nice enough to continue to double our bandwidth every two years for the next couple decades – if we ask them politely?
On the other hand - I think we should be careful about entrusting the financial freedom of the world into the greedy hands of the telecoms companies - given all their shady shenanigans over the past few years in many countries. After decades of the MPAA and the FBI trying to chip away at BitTorrent, lately PirateBay has been hard to access. I would say it's quite likely that certain persons at institutions like JPMorgan and Goldman Sachs and the Fed might be very, very motivated to see Bitcoin fail - so we shouldn't be too sure about scaling plans which depend on the willingness of companies Verizon and AT&T to double our bandwith every two years.
Maybe the real important hardware buildout challenge for a company like 21 (and its allies such as Qualcomm) to take on now would not be "a miner in every toaster" but rather "Google Fiber Download and Upload Speeds in every Country, including China".
I think I've read all the major stuff on the blocksize debate from Gavin Andresen, Mike Hearn, Greg Maxwell, Peter Todd, Adam Back, and Jeff Garzick and several other major contributors - and, oddly enough, all their arguments seem reasonable - heck even Luke-Jr seems reasonable to me on the blocksize debate, and I always thought he was a whackjob overly influenced by superstition and numerology - and now today I'm reading the article by Bram Cohen - the inventor of BitTorrent - and I find myself agreeing with him too!
I say to myself: What's going on with me? How can I possibly agree with all of these guys, if they all have such vehemently opposing viewpoints?
I mean, think back to the glory days of a couple of years ago, when all we were hearing was how this amazing unprecedented grassroots innovation called Bitcoin was going to benefit everyone from all walks of life, all around the world:
...basically the entire human race transacting everything into the blockchain.
(Although let me say that I think that people's focus on ideas like driverless cabs creating realtime fare markets based on supply and demand seems to be setting our sights a bit low as far as Bitcoin's abilities to correct the financial world's capital-misallocation problems which seem to have been made possible by infinite debt-based fiat. I would have hoped that a Bitcoin-based economy would solve much more noble, much more urgent capital-allocation problems than driverless taxicabs creating fare markets or refrigerators ordering milk on the internet of things. I was thinking more along the lines that Bitcoin would finally strangle dead-end debt-based deadly-toxic energy industries like fossil fuels and let profitable clean energy industries like Thorium LFTRs take over - but that's another topic. :=)
Paradoxes in the blocksize debate
Let me summarize the major paradoxes I see here:
(1) Regarding the people (the majority of the core devs) who are against a blocksize increase: Well, the small-blocks arguments do seem kinda weird, and certainly not very "populist", in the sense that: When on earth have end-users ever heard of a computer technology whose capacity didn't grow pretty much exponentially year-on-year? All the cool new technology we've had - from hard drives to RAM to bandwidth - started out pathetically tiny and grew to unimaginably huge over the past few decades - and all our software has in turn gotten massively powerful and big and complex (sometimes bloated) to take advantage of the enormous new capacity available.
But now suddenly, for the first time in the history of technology, we seem to have a majority of the devs, on a major p2p project - saying: "Let's not scale the system up. It could be dangerous. It might break the whole system (if the hard-fork fails)."
I don't know, maybe I'm missing something here, maybe someone else could enlighten me, but I don't think I've ever seen this sort of thing happen in the last few decades of the history of technology - devs arguing against scaling up p2p technology to take advantage of expected growth in infrastructure capacity.
(2) But... on the other hand... the dire warnings of the small-blockians about what could happen if a hard-fork were to fail - wow, they do seem really dire! And these guys are pretty much all heavyweight, experienced programmers and/or game theorists and/or p2p open-source project managers.
I must say, that nearly all of the long-form arguments I've read - as well as many, many of the shorter comments I've read from many users in the threads, whose names I at least have come to more-or-less recognize over the past few months and years on reddit and bitcointalk - have been amazingly impressive in their ability to analyze all aspects of the lifecycle and management of open-source software projects, bringing up lots of serious points which I could never have come up with, and which seem to come from long experience with programming and project management - as well as dealing with economics and human nature (eg, greed - the game-theory stuff).
So a lot of really smart and experienced people with major expertise in various areas ranging from programming to management to game theory to politics to economics have been making some serious, mature, compelling arguments.
But, as I've been saying, the only problem to me is: in many of these cases, these arguments are vehemently in opposition to each other! So I find myself agreeing with pretty much all of them, one by one - which means the end result is just a giant contradiction.
I mean, today we have Bram Cohen, the inventor of BitTorrent, arguing (quite cogently and convincingly to me), that it would be dangerous to increase the blocksize. And this seems to be a guy who would know a few things about scaling out a massive global p2p network - since the protocol which he invented, BitTorrent, is now apparently responsible for like a third of the traffic on the internet (and this despite the long-term concerted efforts of major evil players such as the MPAA and the FBI to shut the whole thing down).
Was the BitTorrent analogy too "glib"?
By the way - I would like to go on a slight tangent here and say that one of the main reasons why I felt so "comfortable" jumping on the Bitcoin train back a few years ago, when I first heard about it and got into it, was the whole rough analogy I saw with BitTorrent.
I remembered the perhaps paradoxical fact that when a torrent is more popular (eg, a major movie release that just came out last week), then it actually becomes faster to download. More people want it, so more people have a few pieces of it, so more people are able to get it from each other. A kind of self-correcting economic feedback loop, where more demand directly leads to more supply.
(BitTorrent manages to pull this off by essentially adding a certain structure to the file being shared, so that it's not simply like an append-only list of 1 MB blocks, but rather more like an random-access or indexed array of 1 MB chunks. Say you're downloading a film which is 700 MB. As soon as your "client" program has downloaded a single 1-MB chunk - say chunk #99 - your "client" program instantly turns into a "server" program as well - offering that chunk #99 to other clients. From my simplistic understanding, I believe the Bitcoin protocol does something similar, to provide a p2p architecture. Hence my - perhaps naïve - assumption that Bitcoin already had the right algorithms / architecture / data structure to scale.)
The efficiency of the BitTorrent network seemed to jive with that "network law" (Metcalfe's Law?) about fax machines. This law states that the more fax machines there are, the more valuable the network of fax machines becomes. Or the value of the network grows on the order of the square of the number of nodes.
This is in contrast with other technology like cars, where the more you have, the worse things get. The more cars there are, the more traffic jams you have, so things start going downhill. I guess this is because highway space is limited - after all, we can't pave over the entire countryside, and we never did get those flying cars we were promised, as David Graeber laments in a recent essay in The Baffler magazine :-)
And regarding the "stress test" supposedly happening right now in the middle of this ongoing blocksize debate, I don't know what worries me more: the fact that it apparently is taking only $5,000 to do a simple kind of DoS on the blockchain - or the fact that there are a few rumors swirling around saying that the unknown company doing the stress test shares the same physical mailing address with a "scam" company?
Or maybe we should just be worried that so much of this debate is happening on a handful of forums which are controlled by some guy named theymos who's already engaged in some pretty "contentious" or "controversial" behavior like blowing a million dollars on writing forum software (I guess he never heard that reddit.com software is open-source)?
So I worry that the great promise of "decentralization" might be more fragile than we originally thought.
Scaling
Anyways, back to Metcalfe's Law: with virtual stuff, like torrents and fax machines, the more the merrier. The more people downloading a given movie, the faster it arrives - and the more people own fax machines, the more valuable the overall fax network.
So I kindof (naïvely?) assumed that Bitcoin, being "virtual" and p2p, would somehow scale up the same magical way BitTorrrent did. I just figured that more people using it would somehow automatically make it stronger and faster.
But now a lot of devs have started talking in terms of the old "scarcity" paradigm, talking about blockspace being a "scarce resource" and talking about "fee markets" - which seems kinda scary, and antithetical to much of the earlier rhetoric we heard about Bitcoin (the stuff about supporting our favorite creators with micropayments, and the stuff about Africans using SMS to send around payments).
Look, when some asshole is in line in front of you at the cash register and he's holding up the line so they can run his credit card to buy a bag of Cheeto's, we tend to get pissed off at the guy - clogging up our expensive global electronic payment infrastructure to make a two-dollar purchase. And that's on a fairly efficient centralized system - and presumably after a year or so, VISA and the guy's bank can delete or compress the transaction in their SQL databases.
Now, correct me if I'm wrong, but if some guy buys a coffee on the blockchain, or if somebody pays an online artist $1.99 for their work - then that transaction, a few bytes or so, has to live on the blockchain forever?
Or is there some "pruning" thing that gets rid of it after a while?
And this could lead to another question: Viewed from the perspective of double-entry bookkeeping, is the blockchain "world-wide ledger" more like the "balance sheet" part of accounting, i.e. a snapshot showing current assets and liabilities? Or is it more like the "cash flow" part of accounting, i.e. a journal showing historical revenues and expenses?
When I think of thousands of machines around the globe having to lug around multiple identical copies of a multi-gigabyte file containing some asshole's coffee purchase forever and ever... I feel like I'm ideologically drifting in one direction (where I'd end up also being against really cool stuff like online micropayments and Africans banking via SMS)... so I don't want to go there.
But on the other hand, when really experienced and battle-tested veterans with major experience in the world of open-souce programming and project management (the "small-blockians") warn of the catastrophic consequences of a possible failed hard-fork, I get freaked out and I wonder if Bitcoin really was destined to be a settlement layer for big transactions.
Could the original programmer(s) possibly weigh in?
And I don't mean to appeal to authority - but heck, where the hell is Satoshi Nakamoto in all this? I do understand that he/she/they would want to maintain absolute anonymity - but on the other hand, I assume SN wants Bitcoin to succeed (both for the future of humanity - or at least for all the bitcoins SN allegedly holds :-) - and I understand there is a way that SN can cryptographically sign a message - and I understand that as the original developer of Bitcoin, SN had some very specific opinions about the blocksize... So I'm kinda wondering of Satoshi could weigh in from time to time. Just to help out a bit. I'm not saying "Show us a sign" like a deity or something - but damn it sure would be fascinating and possibly very helpful if Satoshi gave us his/hetheir 2 satoshis worth at this really confusing juncture.
Are we using our capacity wisely?
I'm not a programming or game-theory whiz, I'm just a casual user who has tried to keep up with technology over the years.
It just seems weird to me that here we have this massive supercomputer (500 times more powerful than the all the supercomputers in the world combined) doing fairly straightforward "embarassingly parallel" number-crunching operations to secure a p2p world-wide ledger called the blockchain to keep track of a measly 2.1 quadrillion tokens spread out among a few billion addresses - and a couple of years ago you had people like Rick Falkvinge saying the blockchain would someday be supporting multi-million-dollar letters of credit for international trade and you had people like Andreas Antonopoulos saying the blockchain would someday allow billions of "unbanked" people to send remittances around the village or around the world dirt-cheap - and now suddenly in June 2015 we're talking about blockspace as a "scarce resource" and talking about "fee markets" and partially centralized, corporate-sponsored "Level 2" vaporware like Lightning Network and some mysterious company is "stess testing" or "DoS-ing" the system by throwing away a measly $5,000 and suddenly it sounds like the whole system could eventually head right back into PayPal and Western Union territory again, in terms of expensive fees.
When I got into Bitcoin, I really was heavily influenced by vague analogies with BitTorrent: I figured everyone would just have tiny little like utorrent-type program running on their machine (ie, Bitcoin-QT or Armory or Mycelium etc.).
I figured that just like anyone can host a their own blog or webserver, anyone would be able to host their own bank.
Yeah, Google and and Mozilla and Twitter and Facebook and WhatsApp did come along and build stuff on top of TCP/IP, so I did expect a bunch of companies to build layers on top of the Bitcoin protocol as well. But I still figured the basic unit of bitcoin client software powering the overall system would be small and personal and affordable and p2p - like a bittorrent client - or at the most, like a cheap server hosting a blog or email server.
And I figured there would be a way at the software level, at the architecture level, at the algorithmic level, at the data structure level - to let the thing scale - if not infinitely, at least fairly massively and gracefully - the same way the BitTorrent network has.
Of course, I do also understand that with BitTorrent, you're sharing a read-only object (eg, a movie) - whereas with Bitcoin, you're achieving distributed trustless consensus and appending it to a write-only (or append-only) database.
So I do understand that the problem which BitTorrent solves is much simpler than the problem which Bitcoin sets out to solve.
But still, it seems that there's got to be a way to make this thing scale. It's p2p and it's got 500 times more computing power than all the supercomputers in the world combined - and so many brilliant and motivated and inspired people want this thing to succeed! And Bitcoin could be our civilization's last chance to steer away from the oncoming debt-based ditch of disaster we seem to be driving into!
It just seems that Bitcoin has got to be able to scale somehow - and all these smart people working together should be able to come up with a solution which pretty much everyone can agree - in advance - will work.
Right? Right?
A (probably irrelevant) tangent on algorithms and architecture and data structures
I'll finally weigh with my personal perspective - although I might be biased due to my background (which is more on the theoretical side of computer science).
My own modest - or perhaps radical - suggestion would be to ask whether we're really looking at all the best possible algorithms and architectures and data structures out there.
From this perspective, I sometimes worry that the overwhelming majority of the great minds working on the programming and game-theory stuff might come from a rather specific, shall we say "von Neumann" or "procedural" or "imperative" school of programming (ie, C and Python and Java programmers).
It seems strange to me that such a cutting-edge and important computer project would have so little participation from the great minds at the other end of the spectrum of programming paradigms - namely, the "functional" and "declarative" and "algebraic" (and co-algebraic!) worlds.
For example, I was struck in particular by statements I've seen here and there (which seemed rather hubristic or lackadaisical to me - for something as important as Bitcoin), that the specification of Bitcoin and the blockchain doesn't really exist in any form other than the reference implementation(s) (in procedural languages such as C or Python?).
Curry-Howard anyone?
I mean, many computer scientists are aware of the Curry-Howard isomorophism, which basically says that the relationship between a theorem and its proof is equivalent to the relationship between a specification and its implementation. In other words, there is a long tradition in mathematics (and in computer programming) of:
And it's not exactly "turtles all the way down" either: a specification is generally simple and compact enough that a good programmer can usually simply visually inspect it to determine if it is indeed "correct" - something which is very difficult, if not impossible, to do with a program written in a procedural, implementation-oriented language such as C or Python or Java.
So I worry that we've got this tradition, from the open-source github C/Java programming tradition, of never actually writing our "specification", and only writing the "implementation". In mission-critical military-grade programming projects (which often use languages like Ada or Maude) this is simply not allowed. It would seem that a project as mission-critical as Bitcoin - which could literally be crucial for humanity's continued survival - should also use this kind of military-grade software development approach.
And I'm not saying rewrite the implementations in these kind of theoretical languages. But it might be helpful if the C/Python/Java programmers in the Bitcoin imperative programming world could build some bridges to the Maude/Haskell/ML programmers of the functional and algebraic programming worlds to see if any kind of useful cross-pollination might take place - between specifications and implementations.
For example, the JavaFAN formal analyzer for multi-threaded Java programs (developed using tools based on the Maude language) was applied to the Remote Agent AI program aboard NASA's Deep Space 1 shuttle, written in Java - and it took only a few minutes using formal mathematical reasoning to detect a potential deadlock which would have occurred years later during the space mission when the damn spacecraft was already way out around Pluto.
And "the Maude-NRL (Naval Research Laboratory) Protocol Analyzer (Maude-NPA) is a tool used to provide security proofs of cryptographic protocols and to search for protocol flaws and cryptosystem attacks."
These are open-source formal reasoning tools developed by DARPA and used by NASA and the US Navy to ensure that program implementations satisfy their specifications. It would be great if some of the people involved in these kinds of projects could contribute to help ensure the security and scalability of Bitcoin.
But there is a wide abyss between the kinds of programmers who use languages like Maude and the kinds of programmers who use languages like C/Python/Java - and it can be really hard to get the two worlds to meet. There is a bit of rapprochement between these language communities in languages which might be considered as being somewhere in the middle, such as Haskell and ML. I just worry that Bitcoin might be turning into being an exclusively C/Python/Java project (with the algorithms and practitioners traditionally of that community), when it could be more advantageous if it also had some people from the functional and algebraic-specification and program-verification community involved as well. The thing is, though: the theoretical practitioners are big on "semantics" - I've heard them say stuff like "Yes but a C / C++ program has no easily identifiable semantics". So to get them involved, you really have to first be able to talk about what your program does (specification) - before proceeding to describe how it does it (implementation). And writing high-level specifications is typically very hard using the syntax and semantics of languages like C and Java and Python - whereas specs are fairly easy to write in Maude - and not only that, they're executable, and you state and verify properties about them - which provides for the kind of debate Nick Szabo was advocating ("more computer science, less noise").
Imagine if we had an executable algebraic specification of Bitcoin in Maude, where we could formally reason about and verify certain crucial game-theoretical properties - rather than merely hand-waving and arguing and deploying and praying.
And so in the theoretical programming community you've got major research on various logics such as Girard's Linear Logic (which is resource-conscious) and Bruni and Montanari's Tile Logic (which enables "pasting" bigger systems together from smaller ones in space and time), and executable algebraic specification languages such as Meseguer's Maude (which would be perfect for game theory modeling, with its functional modules for specifying the deterministic parts of systems and its system modules for specifiying non-deterministic parts of systems, and its parameterized skeletons for sketching out the typical architectures of mobile systems, and its formal reasoning and verification tools and libraries which have been specifically applied to testing and breaking - and fixing - cryptographic protocols).
And somewhat closer to the practical hands-on world, you've got stuff like Google's MapReduce and lots of Big Data database languages developed by Google as well. And yet here we are with a mempool growing dangerously big for RAM on a single machine, and a 20-GB append-only list as our database - and not much debate on practical results from Google's Big Data databases.
(And by the way: maybe I'm totally ignorant for asking this, but I'll ask anyways: why the hell does the mempool have to stay in RAM? Couldn't it work just as well if it were stored temporarily on the hard drive?)
And you've got CalvinDB out of Yale which apparently provides an ACID layer on top of a massively distributed database.
Look, I'm just an armchair follower cheering on these projects. I can barely manage to write a query in SQL, or read through a C or Python or Java program. But I would argue two points here: (1) these languages may be too low-level and "non-formal" for writing and modeling and formally reasoning about and proving properties of mission-critical specifications - and (2) there seem to be some Big Data tools already deployed by institutions such as Google and Yale which support global petabyte-size databases on commodity boxes with nice properties such as near-real-time and ACID - and I sometimes worry that the "core devs" might be failing to review the literature (and reach out to fellow programmers) out there to see if there might be some formal program-verification and practical Big Data tools out there which could be applied to coming up with rock-solid, 100% consensus proposals to handle an issue such as blocksize scaling, which seems to have become much more intractable than many people might have expected.
I mean, the protocol solved the hard stuff: the elliptical-curve stuff and the Byzantine General stuff. How the heck can we be falling down on the comparatively "easier" stuff - like scaling the blocksize?
It just seems like defeatism to say "Well, the blockchain is already 20-30 GB and it's gonna be 20-30 TB ten years from now - and we need 10 Mbs bandwidth now and 10,000 Mbs bandwidth 20 years from - assuming the evil Verizon and AT&T actually give us that - so let's just become a settlement platform and give up on buying coffee or banking the unbanked or doing micropayments, and let's push all that stuff into some corporate-controlled vaporware without even a whitepaper yet."
So you've got Peter Todd doing some possibly brilliant theorizing and extrapolating on the idea of "treechains" - there is a Let's Talk Bitcoin podcast from about a year ago where he sketches the rough outlines of this idea out in a very inspiring, high-level way - although the specifics have yet to be hammered out. And we've got Blockstream also doing some hopeful hand-waving about the Lightning Network.
Things like Peter Todd's treechains - which may be similar to the spark in some devs' eyes called Lightning Network - are examples of the kind of algorithm or architecture which might manage to harness the massive computing power of miners and nodes in such a way that certain kinds of massive and graceful scaling become possible.
It just seems like a kindof tiny dev community working on this stuff.
Being a C or Python or Java programmer should not be a pre-req to being able to help contribute to the specification (and formal reasoning and program verification) for Bitcoin and the blockchain.
XML and UML are crap modeling and specification languages, and C and Java and Python are even worse (as specification languages - although as implementation languages, they are of course fine).
But there are serious modeling and specification languages out there, and they could be very helpful at times like this - where what we're dealing with is questions of modeling and specification (ie, "needs and requirements").
One just doesn't often see the practical, hands-on world of open-source github implementation-level programmers and the academic, theoretical world of specification-level programmers meeting very often. I wish there were some way to get these two worlds to collaborate on Bitcoin.
Maybe a good first step to reach out to the theoretical people would be to provide a modular executable algebraic specification of the Bitcoin protocol in a recognized, military/NASA-grade specification language such as Maude - because that's something the theoretical community can actually wrap their heads around, whereas it's very hard to get them to pay attention to something written only as a C / Python / Java implementation (without an accompanying specification in a formal language).
They can't check whether the program does what it's supposed to do - if you don't provide a formal mathematical definition of what the program is supposed to do.
Specification : Implementation :: Theorem : Proof
You have to remember: the theoretical community is very aware of the Curry-Howard isomorphism. Just like it would be hard to get a mathematician's attention by merely showing them a proof without telling also telling them what theorem the proof is proving - by the same token, it's hard to get the attention of a theoretical computer scientist by merely showing them an implementation without showing them the specification that it implements.
Bitcoin is currently confronted with a mathematical or "computer science" problem: how to secure the network while getting high enough transactional throughput, while staying within the limited RAM, bandwidth and hard drive space limitations of current and future infrastructure.
The problem only becomes a political and economic problem if we give up on trying to solve it as a mathematical and "theoretical computer science" problem.
There should be a plethora of whitepapers out now proposing algorithmic solutions to these scaling issues. Remember, all we have to do is apply the Byzantine General consensus-reaching procedure to a worldwide database which shuffles 2.1 quadrillion tokens among a few billion addresses. The 21 company has emphatically pointed out that racing to compute a hash to add a block is an "embarrassingly parallel" problem - very easy to decompose among cheap, fault-prone, commodity boxes, and recompose into an overall solution - along the lines of Google's highly successful MapReduce.
I guess what I'm really saying is (and I don't mean to be rude here), is that C and Python and Java programmers might not be the best qualified people to develop and formally prove the correctness of (note I do not say: "test", I say "formally prove the correctness of") these kinds of algorithms.
I really believe in the importance of getting the algorithms and architectures right - look at Google Search itself, it uses some pretty brilliant algorithms and architectures (eg, MapReduce, Paxos) which enable it to achieve amazing performance - on pretty crappy commodity hardware. And look at BitTorrent, which is truly p2p, where more demand leads to more supply.
So, in this vein, I will close this lengthy rant with an oddly specific link - which may or may not be able to make some interesting contributions to finding suitable algorithms, architectures and data structures which might help Bitcoin scale massively. I have no idea if this link could be helpful - but given the near-total lack of people from the Haskell and ML and functional worlds in these Bitcoin specification debates, I thought I'd be remiss if I didn't throw this out - just in case there might be something here which could help us channel the massive computing power of the Bitcoin network in such a way as to enable us simply sidestep this kind of desperate debate where both sides seem right because the other side seems wrong.
https://personal.cis.strath.ac.uk/neil.ghani/papers/ghani-calco07
The above paper is about "higher dimensional trees". It uses a bit of category theory (not a whole lot) and a bit of Haskell (again not a lot - just a simple data structure called a Rose tree, which has a wikipedia page) to develop a very expressive and efficient data structure which generalizes from lists to trees to higher dimensions.
I have no idea if this kind of data structure could be applicable to the current scaling mess we apparently are getting bogged down in - I don't have the game-theory skills to figure it out.
I just thought that since the blockchain is like a list, and since there are some tree-like structures which have been grafted on for efficiency (eg Merkle trees) and since many of the futuristic scaling proposals seem to also involve generalizing from list-like structures (eg, the blockchain) to tree-like structures (eg, side-chains and tree-chains)... well, who knows, there might be some nugget of algorithmic or architectural or data-structure inspiration there.
So... TL;DR:
(1) I'm freaked out that this blocksize debate has splintered the community so badly and dragged on so long, with no resolution in sight, and both sides seeming so right (because the other side seems so wrong).
(2) I think Bitcoin could gain immensely by using high-level formal, algebraic and co-algebraic program specification and verification languages (such as Maude including Maude-NPA, Mobile Maude parameterized skeletons, etc.) to specify (and possibly also, to some degree, verify) what Bitcoin does - before translating to low-level implementation languages such as C and Python and Java saying how Bitcoin does it. This would help to communicate and reason about programs with much more mathematical certitude - and possibly obviate the need for many political and economic tradeoffs which currently seem dismally inevitable - and possibly widen the collaboration on this project.
(3) I wonder if there are some Big Data approaches out there (eg, along the lines of Google's MapReduce and BigTable, or Yale's CalvinDB), which could be implemented to allow Bitcoin to scale massively and painlessly - and to satisfy all stakeholders, ranging from millionaires to micropayments, coffee drinkers to the great "unbanked".
submitted by BeYourOwnBank to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Subreddit Stats: CryptoCurrency top posts from 2016-06-07 to 2017-06-06 02:47 PDT

Period: 363.15 days
Submissions Comments
Total 999 15798
Rate (per day) 2.75 42.46
Unique Redditors 448 3925
Combined Score 39454 48727

Top Submitters' Top Submissions

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    5. Madness - Stratris now has a higher marketcap than Dash and Monero and volume more than both combined. (18 points, 53 comments)
  5. 687 points, 8 submissions: AnythingForSuccess
    1. Shills these days...can't believe its so accurate (206 points, 18 comments)
    2. How Litecoin feels right now (136 points, 41 comments)
    3. Daily reminder to keep your wallets safe, a guy is about to get robbed of 70+ BTC (101 points, 13 comments)
    4. Bubble confirmed (93 points, 189 comments)
    5. Are we in a cryptobubble akin to dotcom bubble? (52 points, 79 comments)
    6. Daily reminder guys! (52 points, 20 comments)
    7. Thoughts on IOTA project? (28 points, 17 comments)
    8. Is there some detailed rebuttal to these worrying Ethereum issues? (19 points, 26 comments)
  6. 679 points, 20 submissions: helmsk
    1. Bitcoin Transactions Declared VAT-Exempt in Norway (86 points, 3 comments)
    2. Countdown: Bitcoin Will Be a Legal Method of Payment in Japan in Two Months (85 points, 2 comments)
    3. Zeronet Wants to Replace the Dark Web by Marrying Bitcoin to Bittorrent Over Tor (46 points, 3 comments)
    4. New Image Hosting Service Pays Thousands of Uploaders in Bitcoin (45 points, 4 comments)
    5. Central Bank of Nigeria Says ‘We Can’t Stop Bitcoin’ (43 points, 6 comments)
    6. Coinbase Exits as Hawaii Requires Bitcoin Companies to Hold Fiat Reserves (40 points, 7 comments)
    7. Europe Lays Out Roadmap to Restrict Payments in Cash and Cryptocurrencies (35 points, 1 comment)
    8. Polish Bitcoin Adoption Escalating with Strong Ecosystem (32 points, 1 comment)
    9. One of These 5 Hyperinflating Economies Could Adopt Bitcoin in 2017 (31 points, 6 comments)
    10. A Look At Bitcoin Bubbles, When Will the Next One Be? (25 points, 7 comments)
  7. 653 points, 24 submissions: e-ok
    1. Europe Will Have Power to Ban Blockchain Tech in January 2018 (54 points, 20 comments)
    2. Italy's Largest Taxi Fleet Accepts Bitcoin (44 points, 2 comments)
    3. Bitcoin Projects on Github Surpass 10,000 (41 points, 3 comments)
    4. Bitcoin Symbol Left Out of Unicode's Latest Version (41 points, 4 comments)
    5. Malta's Prime Minister Says Europe Should Become the Bitcoin Continent (37 points, 3 comments)
    6. SEC Rejects Rule Change for Bitcoin ETF (32 points, 0 comments)
    7. Bitcoin Price Poised for a Breakout, Technical Analysis Shows (29 points, 5 comments)
    8. ECB to EU: Tighter Regulations, Less Anonymity on Digital Currencies (29 points, 8 comments)
    9. China's Constant Bubbles Drive Investors to Bitcoin in Droves (27 points, 0 comments)
    10. Yuan Heading for Big Drop -€“ What China's Outflows Mean for Bitcoin (26 points, 1 comment)
  8. 632 points, 15 submissions: -bnc
    1. Japan's largest Forex market opens Bitcoin exchanges to overwhelming demand (170 points, 1 comment)
    2. EU Parliament states Virtual Currencies cannot be anonymous (68 points, 26 comments)
    3. Wells Fargo sued for suspending Bitfinex wire transfers (68 points, 2 comments)
    4. ShapeShift launches trustless asset portfolio platform, Prism (54 points, 18 comments)
    5. Coinify and Countr partnership brings Bitcoin payments to 3,000 merchants (43 points, 2 comments)
    6. Civic launches decentralized identity solution for all occasions (35 points, 3 comments)
    7. UASF - Bitcoin's emergency plan to enact SegWit (29 points, 4 comments)
    8. Lightning Network XCTx adoption ushers in a new era of cryptocurrency functionality (25 points, 1 comment)
    9. Brazil pilots Bitcoin solution for real estate registration (24 points, 4 comments)
    10. 21 launches Lists, for bitcoin powered ‘microconsulting’ (21 points, 1 comment)
  9. 619 points, 1 submission: throwaway23613
    1. I Just Became a Crypto Millionaire (619 points, 242 comments)
  10. 609 points, 9 submissions: TommyEconomics
    1. Cryptocurrency passes $100B in total market cap! (169 points, 13 comments)
    2. Bitcoin just dropped below 50% dominance for the first time ever. (138 points, 78 comments)
    3. Bitcoin dominance now at 59.7%, below 60% for the first time ever. (68 points, 25 comments)
    4. Altcoin market cap passes $10B for first time. (60 points, 35 comments)
    5. Total cryptocurrency market cap now exceeds $20B for the first time! (59 points, 8 comments)
    6. Cryptocurrency market cap passes $70B alongside Bitcoin passing $2000 (31 points, 3 comments)
    7. Search traffic for "Cryptocurrency" hits all-time high! (30 points, 0 comments)
    8. We just hit a $40 billion market cap for cryptocurrency, congrats everyone! (30 points, 15 comments)
    9. Made a video that explains Monero, and on the current market situation. Check it out and let me know what you think! (24 points, 5 comments)

Top Commenters

  1. CryptoInvestor (527 points, 49 comments)
  2. trancephorm (494 points, 135 comments)
  3. nugymmer (347 points, 157 comments)
  4. Metasaurus_Rex (297 points, 23 comments)
  5. undystains (257 points, 28 comments)
  6. backforwardlow (250 points, 57 comments)
  7. algar32 (237 points, 68 comments)
  8. Rxef3RxeX92QCNZ (225 points, 75 comments)
  9. xmr_lucifer (225 points, 39 comments)
  10. ohiomoonchild (222 points, 67 comments)
  11. CryptoMaximalist (202 points, 36 comments)
  12. KalpaX (201 points, 68 comments)
  13. antiprosynthesis (183 points, 70 comments)
  14. peacheswithpeaches (178 points, 26 comments)
  15. c_reddit_m (173 points, 80 comments)
  16. NateOnTheNet (172 points, 51 comments)
  17. disignore (168 points, 22 comments)
  18. Justtryme90 (164 points, 45 comments)
  19. kap_fallback (163 points, 23 comments)
  20. thedesertlynx (155 points, 62 comments)
  21. Darius510 (153 points, 49 comments)
  22. We_are_all_satoshi (153 points, 33 comments)
  23. _moto (151 points, 21 comments)
  24. MR_CHNYD (150 points, 55 comments)
  25. DeepSpace9er (148 points, 26 comments)

Top Submissions

  1. I Just Became a Crypto Millionaire by throwaway23613 (619 points, 242 comments)
  2. Cryptocurrency website starterpack by Luit03 (451 points, 31 comments)
  3. I believe we are safe now. by proce55or (443 points, 35 comments)
  4. The Tokes Platform releases 4/20 Newsletter outlining new developments: products, mobile app, and more... #420Blazetheblockchain by Cryptnition (308 points, 3 comments)
  5. MONERO EXPLAINED by cryptoKL (292 points, 71 comments)
  6. Visualization of Cryptocurrency Correlations by SNAP_Longterm (280 points, 49 comments)
  7. Ripple was 100% premined. Stellar was 97% premined. by backforwardlow (271 points, 163 comments)
  8. CryptoMarkets right now by sneaky_soy_sauce (270 points, 16 comments)
  9. A warning - I am about to buy by kriegsfuehrung (264 points, 62 comments)
  10. Dear noobs, if you ask for investment advice, people will tell you to invest in what they hold, even if it makes you poor. by backforwardlow (258 points, 46 comments)

Top Comments

  1. 211 points: Metasaurus_Rex's comment in $10K to invest - What to do?
  2. 132 points: disignore's comment in Cryptocurrency website starterpack
  3. 121 points: illSeeMyselfOutNowOk's comment in A warning - I am about to buy
  4. 107 points: undystains's comment in Ripple was 100% premined. Stellar was 97% premined.
  5. 103 points: imonlyherefortheeths's comment in Since I got into cryptocurrencies a week ago, that's my crypto app folder on iPhone - am I missing something?
  6. 97 points: madhattared's comment in I hate to be this guy but... we are in a huge bubble, hear me out
  7. 92 points: CharlieBaumhauser's comment in Ripple is a scam
  8. 87 points: kongclassic's comment in What are your alt coin trading strategies?
  9. 73 points: CryptoInvestor's comment in What is your cryptocurrency you follow and why?
  10. 73 points: CryptoInvestor's comment in Thoughts in general on $SC - Siacoin?
Generated with BBoe's Subreddit Stats (Donate)
submitted by subreddit_stats to subreddit_stats [link] [comments]

Gyft is the Bitcoin consumer's only good app.

On Friday, Barry Silbert tweeted his "wish list" of the top five companies he hoped would soon accept bitcoin, and asked his followers which merchants were in their top five. Some of the most popular responses were Amazon, Target, Whole Foods, and Zappos, which ironically are all companies that work with Gyft, the mobile gift card company that is probably the industry's most crucial and useful consumer bitcoin app.
One of bitcoin's biggest challenges is its lack of clear consumer use cases today. Unless you are a crypto-anarchist who is willfully "opting out" of the traditional banking / credit system, a privacy nut, a black market consumer, a bitcoin paper millionaire who spends bitcoin as a diversification strategy, or a prolific micro-tipper, you are better off using a debit or credit card for your day to day commerce. Said another way, bitcoin simply doesn't make sense for 99% of consumers.
I saw this first hand last week when I paid for dinner at a bitcoin-friendly sushi restaurant in my neighborhood. I transferred the $72.88 due through the merchant's BitPay account with bitcoin from a Coinbase wallet that appeared to be worth $73.24. Sure, that $0.36 "surcharge" might only be a half percent, but when you add it to the 1% cash back I was foregoing (2-3% for some credit cards that have better restaurant rewards), the merchant's bitcoin savings were simply additional costs incurred by me. I was spending bitcoin that had appreciated 30% in the past week and it annoyed me; how would consumers interested in a more stable bitcoin feel about that hidden fee?
Of course, I was at one of the few restaurants in my city that accepts bitcoin period. Forbes' Kashmir Hill demonstrated (for the second year in a row) how difficult it still is for any bitcoin enthusiast to live life without cash or credit cards. Hill's week using nothing but bitcoin in San Francisco showcased how there are not yet any reliable transportation vendors, point of sale systems or ATMs to make life on bitcoin truly viable. Instead, she spent much of her first post praising the existence of Gyft and its role as the bitcoin consumer's bridge to the non-speculative investment (aka "real") world where bitcoin can be used.
(http://www.forbes.com/sites/kashmirhill/2014/05/06/living-on-bitcoin-a-year-later-will-it-be-easie)
Gyft has, in fact, solved many of the early consumer use case problems for bitcoin. For starters, the company's mobile app has not been banned by Apple, making it usable for the millions of iOS faithful who might not exchange their iPhone simply to dabble with a new payment technology. Gyft also offers a 3% credit on bitcoin purchases, passing the cost savings back to the consumer and ensuring that I'll never see a surcharge for using bitcoin through Gyft as I will at my sushi restaurant. Finally, Hill outlined the life-saving utility of Gyft during her week-long experiment - gift cards to CVS, ride-sharing service Lyft, Fandango, etc. - that stems from its partnerships with over 200 retailers.
Hill said it best: "Gyft is a very easy way to convert Bitcoin into usable money — without ever actually turning it into cash and paying the 1% fee charged by exchangers like Coinbase and Bitpay. Gyft absorbs that conversion fee for consumers, and at a lower rate due to its volume."
Are there any other consumer applications that even come close to encouraging greater consumer adoption of bitcoin?
submitted by twobitidiot to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Billionaire LIVE Walkthrough - SCAM or LEGIT? Find Out In This Review 2019 Bitcoin Billionaire iPhone 6 Gameplay HD How to get hyperbits for free in Bitcoin Billionaire for iPhone/iPad Bitcoin Billionaire  Android, iPhone & iPad Bitcoin Billionaire iPhone, iPad, iPod HACK/Glitch GET RICH EASY!!!

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