BiPS (BiPS) ICO Rating and Details - CoinCheckup

BIP draft from [bitcoin-dev]: Suggestion for a universal bitcoin value scale (color codes)

Abstract

A universal bitcoin value color scale is presented here as a way to creating an easy visual aid for insuring correct amounts in transactions.

Motivation

The motivation behind this BIP is in line with BIP 176 by Jimmy Song. The bitcoin price has grown over the years and once the price is past $10,000 USD or so, bitcoin amounts under $10 USD start having enough decimal places that it's difficult to tell whether the user is off by a factor of 10 or not. This proposal is a supplement to the BIP 176, utilizing the digital nature of bitcoin, to allow a visual aid in the bitcoin transactions. This is doing to insure a common understanding of the amount in question between the parties trading.
Potential benefits of utilizing " A universal bitcoin value color scale" include:
  1. Reduce user error on bitcoin amounts.
  2. Allow easier comparisons of prices for most users.
  3. Using a visual aid makes transactions easier for people with dyscalculia.
  4. Allow easier bi-directional comparisons to altcoins and fiat currencies.
PDF
Example Picture
submitted by StopAndDecrypt to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Amir Taaki, the bitcoin pioneer who started openbazaar and BIPs on current state of Bitcoin Core: "Current developers have no vision. When people consume something as a pure commodity with no purpose or meaning then that product loses all higher value to change the world"

Amir Taaki, the bitcoin pioneer who started openbazaar and BIPs on current state of Bitcoin Core: submitted by hunk_quark to btc [link] [comments]

Andreas on Twitter: "Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP) 75 is actually a bitcoin deterioration proposal. Facilitating KYC at any layer reduces value of bitcoin"

Andreas on Twitter: submitted by chinawat to btc [link] [comments]

BIP Draft via [bitcoin-dev] mailing list - Suggestion for a universal bitcoin value scale /r/Bitcoin

BIP Draft via [bitcoin-dev] mailing list - Suggestion for a universal bitcoin value scale /Bitcoin submitted by ABitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

BIP draft from [bitcoin-dev]: Suggestion for a universal bitcoin value scale (color codes) /r/Bitcoin

BIP draft from [bitcoin-dev]: Suggestion for a universal bitcoin value scale (color codes) /Bitcoin submitted by ABitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Amir Taaki, the bitcoin pioneer who started openbazaar and BIPs on current state of Bitcoin Core: "Current developers have no vision. When people consume something as a pure commodity with no purpose or meaning then that product loses all higher value to change the world"

Amir Taaki, the bitcoin pioneer who started openbazaar and BIPs on current state of Bitcoin Core: submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Andreas on Twitter: "Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP) 75 is actually a bitcoin deterioration proposal. Facilitating KYC at any layer reduces value of bitcoin"

Andreas on Twitter: submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

New BIP: Low S values signatures | Johnson Lau | Aug 16 2016 /r/bitcoin_devlist

New BIP: Low S values signatures | Johnson Lau | Aug 16 2016 /bitcoin_devlist submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

06-29 17:37 - 'Andreas on Twitter: Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP) 75 is actually a bitcoin deterioration proposal. Facilitating KYC at any layer reduces value of bitcoin' (twitter.com) by /u/maskedgenius removed from /r/Bitcoin within 6-11min

Andreas on Twitter: Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP) 75 is actually a bitcoin deterioration proposal. Facilitating KYC at any layer reduces value of bitcoin
Go1dfish undelete link
unreddit undelete link
Author: maskedgenius
submitted by removalbot to removalbot [link] [comments]

[BIP Draft] Allow zero value OP_RETURN in Payment Protocol | Toby Padilla | Jan 26 2016 /r/bitcoin_devlist

[BIP Draft] Allow zero value OP_RETURN in Payment Protocol | Toby Padilla | Jan 26 2016 /bitcoin_devlist submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

el="" >Andreas on Twitter: Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP) 75 is actually a bitcoin deterioration proposal. Facilitating KYC at any layer reduces value of bitcoin

el=Andreas on Twitter: Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP) 75 is actually a bitcoin deterioration proposal. Facilitating KYC at any layer reduces value of bitcoin" title="el="" >Andreas on Twitter: Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP) 75 is actually a bitcoin deterioration proposal. Facilitating KYC at any layer reduces value of bitcoin" /> submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

BIP-74 Draft: Allow zero value OP_RETURN in Payment Protocol /r/Bitcoin

BIP-74 Draft: Allow zero value OP_RETURN in Payment Protocol /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

BIPS, Bitcoin Internet Payment System 2013 Contest Grand prize valued at $4800 See more https://bips.me/referrer

BIPS, Bitcoin Internet Payment System 2013 Contest Grand prize valued at $4800 See more https://bips.me/referrer submitted by BIPSBitcoin to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

How long until the issue of blocksize is brought up again for the Bitcoin Core community?

From the looks of it, it seems like there is eventually going to be further division in the Bitcoin Core community in the future, though that division may not be obcious right now because of the censored discussion on Bitcoin, and the fact that everyone at this moment is okay with full blocks and high fees. At some point, Bitcoin absolutely will have to raise its blocksize limit because on-chain fees can't be hundreds of dollars per transaction. Even with transaction batching for Lightning, it still doesn't seem viable to keep the blocksize limit so low... I've talked to other Bitcoin supporters and maximalists about increasing the blocksize, and it usually boils down to a few views/perspectives on the whole congestion situation with BTC:




Right now the fee situation on Bitcoin is pretty bad, but it will only get worse with adoption. It already seems like the idea of achieving consensus for a hardfork is near impossible due to the nature of discussion on the Bitcointalk forum and Bitcoin subreddit (both owned by theymos). It directly states in the subreddit rule section that:
Promotion of client software which attempts to alter the Bitcoin protocol without overwhelming consensus is not permitted.
The issue with this is the fact that this also includes even proposing a hardfork. I've seen discussions about even putting forward a BIP that proposes bigger blocks get completely censored or deleted by Bitcoin mods. So the first idea that hardforks will happen later on seems extremely unrealistic.
The second idea is in direct conflict with the first one because it asserts an argument that opposes the first one. If blocksize doesn't and shouldn't be increased (and are fine the way they are), this will also cause division in the community.
The third idea is also in conflict with the first and the second, which will also likely result in division. When will this division become much more evident in the Bitcoin Core community, causing another split for Bitcoin? It's bound to happen at some point, but maybe not today.
submitted by 1MightBeAPenguin to btc [link] [comments]

Technical: Taproot: Why Activate?

This is a follow-up on https://old.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/hqzp14/technical_the_path_to_taproot_activation/
Taproot! Everybody wants it!! But... you might ask yourself: sure, everybody else wants it, but why would I, sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, want it? Surely I can be better than everybody else because I swapped XXX fiat for Bitcoin unlike all those nocoiners?
And it is important for you to know the reasons why you, o sovereign Bitcoiner, would want Taproot activated. After all, your nodes (or the nodes your wallets use, which if you are SPV, you hopefully can pester to your wallet vendoimplementor about) need to be upgraded in order for Taproot activation to actually succeed instead of becoming a hot sticky mess.
First, let's consider some principles of Bitcoin.
I'm sure most of us here would agree that the above are very important principles of Bitcoin and that these are principles we would not be willing to remove. If anything, we would want those principles strengthened (especially the last one, financial privacy, which current Bitcoin is only sporadically strong with: you can get privacy, it just requires effort to do so).
So, how does Taproot affect those principles?

Taproot and Your /Coins

Most HODLers probably HODL their coins in singlesig addresses. Sadly, switching to Taproot would do very little for you (it gives a mild discount at spend time, at the cost of a mild increase in fee at receive time (paid by whoever sends to you, so if it's a self-send from a P2PKH or bech32 address, you pay for this); mostly a wash).
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash, so the Taproot output spends 12 bytes more; spending from a P2WPKH requires revealing a 32-byte public key later, which is not needed with Taproot, and Taproot signatures are about 9 bytes smaller than P2WPKH signatures, but the 32 bytes plus 9 bytes is divided by 4 because of the witness discount, so it saves about 11 bytes; mostly a wash, it increases blockweight by about 1 virtual byte, 4 weight for each Taproot-output-input, compared to P2WPKH-output-input).
However, as your HODLings grow in value, you might start wondering if multisignature k-of-n setups might be better for the security of your savings. And it is in multisignature that Taproot starts to give benefits!
Taproot switches to using Schnorr signing scheme. Schnorr makes key aggregation -- constructing a single public key from multiple public keys -- almost as trivial as adding numbers together. "Almost" because it involves some fairly advanced math instead of simple boring number adding, but hey when was the last time you added up your grocery list prices by hand huh?
With current P2SH and P2WSH multisignature schemes, if you have a 2-of-3 setup, then to spend, you need to provide two different signatures from two different public keys. With Taproot, you can create, using special moon math, a single public key that represents your 2-of-3 setup. Then you just put two of your devices together, have them communicate to each other (this can be done airgapped, in theory, by sending QR codes: the software to do this is not even being built yet, but that's because Taproot hasn't activated yet!), and they will make a single signature to authorize any spend from your 2-of-3 address. That's 73 witness bytes -- 18.25 virtual bytes -- of signatures you save!
And if you decide that your current setup with 1-of-1 P2PKH / P2WPKH addresses is just fine as-is: well, that's the whole point of a softfork: backwards-compatibility; you can receive from Taproot users just fine, and once your wallet is updated for Taproot-sending support, you can send to Taproot users just fine as well!
(P2WPKH and P2WSH -- SegWit v0 -- addresses start with bc1q; Taproot -- SegWit v1 --- addresses start with bc1p, in case you wanted to know the difference; in bech32 q is 0, p is 1)
Now how about HODLers who keep all, or some, of their coins on custodial services? Well, any custodial service worth its salt would be doing at least 2-of-3, or probably something even bigger, like 11-of-15. So your custodial service, if it switched to using Taproot internally, could save a lot more (imagine an 11-of-15 getting reduced from 11 signatures to just 1!), which --- we can only hope! --- should translate to lower fees and better customer service from your custodial service!
So I think we can say, very accurately, that the Bitcoin principle --- that YOU are in control of your money --- can only be helped by Taproot (if you are doing multisignature), and, because P2PKH and P2WPKH remain validly-usable addresses in a Taproot future, will not be harmed by Taproot. Its benefit to this principle might be small (it mostly only benefits multisignature users) but since it has no drawbacks with this (i.e. singlesig users can continue to use P2WPKH and P2PKH still) this is still a nice, tidy win!
(even singlesig users get a minor benefit, in that multisig users will now reduce their blockchain space footprint, so that fees can be kept low for everybody; so for example even if you have your single set of private keys engraved on titanium plates sealed in an airtight box stored in a safe buried in a desert protected by angry nomads riding giant sandworms because you're the frickin' Kwisatz Haderach, you still gain some benefit from Taproot)
And here's the important part: if P2PKH/P2WPKH is working perfectly fine with you and you decide to never use Taproot yourself, Taproot will not affect you detrimentally. First do no harm!

Taproot and Your Contracts

No one is an island, no one lives alone. Give and you shall receive. You know: by trading with other people, you can gain expertise in some obscure little necessity of the world (and greatly increase your productivity in that little field), and then trade the products of your expertise for necessities other people have created, all of you thereby gaining gains from trade.
So, contracts, which are basically enforceable agreements that facilitate trading with people who you do not personally know and therefore might not trust.
Let's start with a simple example. You want to buy some gewgaws from somebody. But you don't know them personally. The seller wants the money, you want their gewgaws, but because of the lack of trust (you don't know them!! what if they're scammers??) neither of you can benefit from gains from trade.
However, suppose both of you know of some entity that both of you trust. That entity can act as a trusted escrow. The entity provides you security: this enables the trade, allowing both of you to get gains from trade.
In Bitcoin-land, this can be implemented as a 2-of-3 multisignature. The three signatories in the multisgnature would be you, the gewgaw seller, and the escrow. You put the payment for the gewgaws into this 2-of-3 multisignature address.
Now, suppose it turns out neither of you are scammers (whaaaat!). You receive the gewgaws just fine and you're willing to pay up for them. Then you and the gewgaw seller just sign a transaction --- you and the gewgaw seller are 2, sufficient to trigger the 2-of-3 --- that spends from the 2-of-3 address to a singlesig the gewgaw seller wants (or whatever address the gewgaw seller wants).
But suppose some problem arises. The seller gave you gawgews instead of gewgaws. Or you decided to keep the gewgaws but not sign the transaction to release the funds to the seller. In either case, the escrow is notified, and if it can sign with you to refund the funds back to you (if the seller was a scammer) or it can sign with the seller to forward the funds to the seller (if you were a scammer).
Taproot helps with this: like mentioned above, it allows multisignature setups to produce only one signature, reducing blockchain space usage, and thus making contracts --- which require multiple people, by definition, you don't make contracts with yourself --- is made cheaper (which we hope enables more of these setups to happen for more gains from trade for everyone, also, moon and lambos).
(technology-wise, it's easier to make an n-of-n than a k-of-n, making a k-of-n would require a complex setup involving a long ritual with many communication rounds between the n participants, but an n-of-n can be done trivially with some moon math. You can, however, make what is effectively a 2-of-3 by using a three-branch SCRIPT: either 2-of-2 of you and seller, OR 2-of-2 of you and escrow, OR 2-of-2 of escrow and seller. Fortunately, Taproot adds a facility to embed a SCRIPT inside a public key, so you can have a 2-of-2 Taprooted address (between you and seller) with a SCRIPT branch that can instead be spent with 2-of-2 (you + escrow) OR 2-of-2 (seller + escrow), which implements the three-branched SCRIPT above. If neither of you are scammers (hopefully the common case) then you both sign using your keys and never have to contact the escrow, since you are just using the escrow public key without coordinating with them (because n-of-n is trivial but k-of-n requires setup with communication rounds), so in the "best case" where both of you are honest traders, you also get a privacy boost, in that the escrow never learns you have been trading on gewgaws, I mean ewww, gawgews are much better than gewgaws and therefore I now judge you for being a gewgaw enthusiast, you filthy gewgawer).

Taproot and Your Contracts, Part 2: Cryptographic Boogaloo

Now suppose you want to buy some data instead of things. For example, maybe you have some closed-source software in trial mode installed, and want to pay the developer for the full version. You want to pay for an activation code.
This can be done, today, by using an HTLC. The developer tells you the hash of the activation code. You pay to an HTLC, paying out to the developer if it reveals the preimage (the activation code), or refunding the money back to you after a pre-agreed timeout. If the developer claims the funds, it has to reveal the preimage, which is the activation code, and you can now activate your software. If the developer does not claim the funds by the timeout, you get refunded.
And you can do that, with HTLCs, today.
Of course, HTLCs do have problems:
Fortunately, with Schnorr (which is enabled by Taproot), we can now use the Scriptless Script constuction by Andrew Poelstra. This Scriptless Script allows a new construction, the PTLC or Pointlocked Timelocked Contract. Instead of hashes and preimages, just replace "hash" with "point" and "preimage" with "scalar".
Or as you might know them: "point" is really "public key" and "scalar" is really a "private key". What a PTLC does is that, given a particular public key, the pointlocked branch can be spent only if the spender reveals the private key of the given public key to you.
Another nice thing with PTLCs is that they are deniable. What appears onchain is just a single 2-of-2 signature between you and the developemanufacturer. It's like a magic trick. This signature has no special watermarks, it's a perfectly normal signature (the pledge). However, from this signature, plus some datta given to you by the developemanufacturer (known as the adaptor signature) you can derive the private key of a particular public key you both agree on (the turn). Anyone scraping the blockchain will just see signatures that look just like every other signature, and as long as nobody manages to hack you and get a copy of the adaptor signature or the private key, they cannot get the private key behind the public key (point) that the pointlocked branch needs (the prestige).
(Just to be clear, the public key you are getting the private key from, is distinct from the public key that the developemanufacturer will use for its funds. The activation key is different from the developer's onchain Bitcoin key, and it is the activation key whose private key you will be learning, not the developer's/manufacturer's onchain Bitcoin key).
So:
Taproot lets PTLCs exist onchain because they enable Schnorr, which is a requirement of PTLCs / Scriptless Script.
(technology-wise, take note that Scriptless Script works only for the "pointlocked" branch of the contract; you need normal Script, or a pre-signed nLockTimed transaction, for the "timelocked" branch. Since Taproot can embed a script, you can have the Taproot pubkey be a 2-of-2 to implement the Scriptless Script "pointlocked" branch, then have a hidden script that lets you recover the funds with an OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY after the timeout if the seller does not claim the funds.)

Quantum Quibbles!

Now if you were really paying attention, you might have noticed this parenthetical:
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash...)
So wait, Taproot uses raw 32-byte public keys, and not public key hashes? Isn't that more quantum-vulnerable??
Well, in theory yes. In practice, they probably are not.
It's not that hashes can be broken by quantum computes --- they're still not. Instead, you have to look at how you spend from a P2WPKH/P2PKH pay-to-public-key-hash.
When you spend from a P2PKH / P2WPKH, you have to reveal the public key. Then Bitcoin hashes it and checks if this matches with the public-key-hash, and only then actually validates the signature for that public key.
So an unconfirmed transaction, floating in the mempools of nodes globally, will show, in plain sight for everyone to see, your public key.
(public keys should be public, that's why they're called public keys, LOL)
And if quantum computers are fast enough to be of concern, then they are probably fast enough that, in the several minutes to several hours from broadcast to confirmation, they have already cracked the public key that is openly broadcast with your transaction. The owner of the quantum computer can now replace your unconfirmed transaction with one that pays the funds to itself. Even if you did not opt-in RBF, miners are still incentivized to support RBF on RBF-disabled transactions.
So the extra hash is not as significant a protection against quantum computers as you might think. Instead, the extra hash-and-compare needed is just extra validation effort.
Further, if you have ever, in the past, spent from the address, then there exists already a transaction indelibly stored on the blockchain, openly displaying the public key from which quantum computers can derive the private key. So those are still vulnerable to quantum computers.
For the most part, the cryptographers behind Taproot (and Bitcoin Core) are of the opinion that quantum computers capable of cracking Bitcoin pubkeys are unlikely to appear within a decade or two.
So:
For now, the homomorphic and linear properties of elliptic curve cryptography provide a lot of benefits --- particularly the linearity property is what enables Scriptless Script and simple multisignature (i.e. multisignatures that are just 1 signature onchain). So it might be a good idea to take advantage of them now while we are still fairly safe against quantum computers. It seems likely that quantum-safe signature schemes are nonlinear (thus losing these advantages).

Summary

I Wanna Be The Taprooter!

So, do you want to help activate Taproot? Here's what you, mister sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, can do!

But I Hate Taproot!!

That's fine!

Discussions About Taproot Activation

submitted by almkglor to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Technical: The Path to Taproot Activation

Taproot! Everybody wants to have it, somebody wants to make it, nobody knows how to get it!
(If you are asking why everybody wants it, see: Technical: Taproot: Why Activate?)
(Pedants: I mostly elide over lockin times)
Briefly, Taproot is that neat new thing that gets us:
So yes, let's activate taproot!

The SegWit Wars

The biggest problem with activating Taproot is PTSD from the previous softfork, SegWit. Pieter Wuille, one of the authors of the current Taproot proposal, has consistently held the position that he will not discuss activation, and will accept whatever activation process is imposed on Taproot. Other developers have expressed similar opinions.
So what happened with SegWit activation that was so traumatic? SegWit used the BIP9 activation method. Let's dive into BIP9!

BIP9 Miner-Activated Soft Fork

Basically, BIP9 has a bunch of parameters:
Now there are other parameters (name, starttime) but they are not anywhere near as important as the above two.
A number that is not a parameter, is 95%. Basically, activation of a BIP9 softfork is considered as actually succeeding if at least 95% of blocks in the last 2 weeks had the specified bit in the nVersion set. If less than 95% had this bit set before the timeout, then the upgrade fails and never goes into the network. This is not a parameter: it is a constant defined by BIP9, and developers using BIP9 activation cannot change this.
So, first some simple questions and their answers:

The Great Battles of the SegWit Wars

SegWit not only fixed transaction malleability, it also created a practical softforkable blocksize increase that also rebalanced weights so that the cost of spending a UTXO is about the same as the cost of creating UTXOs (and spending UTXOs is "better" since it limits the size of the UTXO set that every fullnode has to maintain).
So SegWit was written, the activation was decided to be BIP9, and then.... miner signalling stalled at below 75%.
Thus were the Great SegWit Wars started.

BIP9 Feature Hostage

If you are a miner with at least 5% global hashpower, you can hold a BIP9-activated softfork hostage.
You might even secretly want the softfork to actually push through. But you might want to extract concession from the users and the developers. Like removing the halvening. Or raising or even removing the block size caps (which helps larger miners more than smaller miners, making it easier to become a bigger fish that eats all the smaller fishes). Or whatever.
With BIP9, you can hold the softfork hostage. You just hold out and refuse to signal. You tell everyone you will signal, if and only if certain concessions are given to you.
This ability by miners to hold a feature hostage was enabled because of the miner-exit allowed by the timeout on BIP9. Prior to that, miners were considered little more than expendable security guards, paid for the risk they take to secure the network, but not special in the grand scheme of Bitcoin.

Covert ASICBoost

ASICBoost was a novel way of optimizing SHA256 mining, by taking advantage of the structure of the 80-byte header that is hashed in order to perform proof-of-work. The details of ASICBoost are out-of-scope here but you can read about it elsewhere
Here is a short summary of the two types of ASICBoost, relevant to the activation discussion.
Now, "overt" means "obvious", while "covert" means hidden. Overt ASICBoost is obvious because nVersion bits that are not currently in use for BIP9 activations are usually 0 by default, so setting those bits to 1 makes it obvious that you are doing something weird (namely, Overt ASICBoost). Covert ASICBoost is non-obvious because the order of transactions in a block are up to the miner anyway, so the miner rearranging the transactions in order to get lower power consumption is not going to be detected.
Unfortunately, while Overt ASICBoost was compatible with SegWit, Covert ASICBoost was not. This is because, pre-SegWit, only the block header Merkle tree committed to the transaction ordering. However, with SegWit, another Merkle tree exists, which commits to transaction ordering as well. Covert ASICBoost would require more computation to manipulate two Merkle trees, obviating the power benefits of Covert ASICBoost anyway.
Now, miners want to use ASICBoost (indeed, about 60->70% of current miners probably use the Overt ASICBoost nowadays; if you have a Bitcoin fullnode running you will see the logs with lots of "60 of last 100 blocks had unexpected versions" which is exactly what you would see with the nVersion manipulation that Overt ASICBoost does). But remember: ASICBoost was, at around the time, a novel improvement. Not all miners had ASICBoost hardware. Those who did, did not want it known that they had ASICBoost hardware, and wanted to do Covert ASICBoost!
But Covert ASICBoost is incompatible with SegWit, because SegWit actually has two Merkle trees of transaction data, and Covert ASICBoost works by fudging around with transaction ordering in a block, and recomputing two Merkle Trees is more expensive than recomputing just one (and loses the ASICBoost advantage).
Of course, those miners that wanted Covert ASICBoost did not want to openly admit that they had ASICBoost hardware, they wanted to keep their advantage secret because miners are strongly competitive in a very tight market. And doing ASICBoost Covertly was just the ticket, but they could not work post-SegWit.
Fortunately, due to the BIP9 activation process, they could hold SegWit hostage while covertly taking advantage of Covert ASICBoost!

UASF: BIP148 and BIP8

When the incompatibility between Covert ASICBoost and SegWit was realized, still, activation of SegWit stalled, and miners were still not openly claiming that ASICBoost was related to non-activation of SegWit.
Eventually, a new proposal was created: BIP148. With this rule, 3 months before the end of the SegWit timeout, nodes would reject blocks that did not signal SegWit. Thus, 3 months before SegWit timeout, BIP148 would force activation of SegWit.
This proposal was not accepted by Bitcoin Core, due to the shortening of the timeout (it effectively times out 3 months before the initial SegWit timeout). Instead, a fork of Bitcoin Core was created which added the patch to comply with BIP148. This was claimed as a User Activated Soft Fork, UASF, since users could freely download the alternate fork rather than sticking with the developers of Bitcoin Core.
Now, BIP148 effectively is just a BIP9 activation, except at its (earlier) timeout, the new rules would be activated anyway (instead of the BIP9-mandated behavior that the upgrade is cancelled at the end of the timeout).
BIP148 was actually inspired by the BIP8 proposal (the link here is a historical version; BIP8 has been updated recently, precisely in preparation for Taproot activation). BIP8 is basically BIP9, but at the end of timeout, the softfork is activated anyway rather than cancelled.
This removed the ability of miners to hold the softfork hostage. At best, they can delay the activation, but not stop it entirely by holding out as in BIP9.
Of course, this implies risk that not all miners have upgraded before activation, leading to possible losses for SPV users, as well as again re-pressuring miners to signal activation, possibly without the miners actually upgrading their software to properly impose the new softfork rules.

BIP91, SegWit2X, and The Aftermath

BIP148 inspired countermeasures, possibly from the Covert ASiCBoost miners, possibly from concerned users who wanted to offer concessions to miners. To this day, the common name for BIP148 - UASF - remains an emotionally-charged rallying cry for parts of the Bitcoin community.
One of these was SegWit2X. This was brokered in a deal between some Bitcoin personalities at a conference in New York, and thus part of the so-called "New York Agreement" or NYA, another emotionally-charged acronym.
The text of the NYA was basically:
  1. Set up a new activation threshold at 80% signalled at bit 4 (vs bit 1 for SegWit).
    • When this 80% signalling was reached, miners would require that bit 1 for SegWit be signalled to achive the 95% activation needed for SegWit.
  2. If the bit 4 signalling reached 80%, increase the block weight limit from the SegWit 4000000 to the SegWit2X 8000000, 6 months after bit 1 activation.
The first item above was coded in BIP91.
Unfortunately, if you read the BIP91, independently of NYA, you might come to the conclusion that BIP91 was only about lowering the threshold to 80%. In particular, BIP91 never mentions anything about the second point above, it never mentions that bit 4 80% threshold would also signal for a later hardfork increase in weight limit.
Because of this, even though there are claims that NYA (SegWit2X) reached 80% dominance, a close reading of BIP91 shows that the 80% dominance was only for SegWit activation, without necessarily a later 2x capacity hardfork (SegWit2X).
This ambiguity of bit 4 (NYA says it includes a 2x capacity hardfork, BIP91 says it does not) has continued to be a thorn in blocksize debates later. Economically speaking, Bitcoin futures between SegWit and SegWit2X showed strong economic dominance in favor of SegWit (SegWit2X futures were traded at a fraction in value of SegWit futures: I personally made a tidy but small amount of money betting against SegWit2X in the futures market), so suggesting that NYA achieved 80% dominance even in mining is laughable, but the NYA text that ties bit 4 to SegWit2X still exists.
Historically, BIP91 triggered which caused SegWit to activate before the BIP148 shorter timeout. BIP148 proponents continue to hold this day that it was the BIP148 shorter timeout and no-compromises-activate-on-August-1 that made miners flock to BIP91 as a face-saving tactic that actually removed the second clause of NYA. NYA supporters keep pointing to the bit 4 text in the NYA and the historical activation of BIP91 as a failed promise by Bitcoin developers.

Taproot Activation Proposals

There are two primary proposals I can see for Taproot activation:
  1. BIP8.
  2. Modern Softfork Activation.
We have discussed BIP8: roughly, it has bit and timeout, if 95% of miners signal bit it activates, at the end of timeout it activates. (EDIT: BIP8 has had recent updates: at the end of timeout it can now activate or fail. For the most part, in the below text "BIP8", means BIP8-and-activate-at-timeout, and "BIP9" means BIP8-and-fail-at-timeout)
So let's take a look at Modern Softfork Activation!

Modern Softfork Activation

This is a more complex activation method, composed of BIP9 and BIP8 as supcomponents.
  1. First have a 12-month BIP9 (fail at timeout).
  2. If the above fails to activate, have a 6-month discussion period during which users and developers and miners discuss whether to continue to step 3.
  3. Have a 24-month BIP8 (activate at timeout).
The total above is 42 months, if you are counting: 3.5 years worst-case activation.
The logic here is that if there are no problems, BIP9 will work just fine anyway. And if there are problems, the 6-month period should weed it out. Finally, miners cannot hold the feature hostage since the 24-month BIP8 period will exist anyway.

PSA: Being Resilient to Upgrades

Software is very birttle.
Anyone who has been using software for a long time has experienced something like this:
  1. You hear a new version of your favorite software has a nice new feature.
  2. Excited, you install the new version.
  3. You find that the new version has subtle incompatibilities with your current workflow.
  4. You are sad and downgrade to the older version.
  5. You find out that the new version has changed your files in incompatible ways that the old version cannot work with anymore.
  6. You tearfully reinstall the newer version and figure out how to get your lost productivity now that you have to adapt to a new workflow
If you are a technically-competent user, you might codify your workflow into a bunch of programs. And then you upgrade one of the external pieces of software you are using, and find that it has a subtle incompatibility with your current workflow which is based on a bunch of simple programs you wrote yourself. And if those simple programs are used as the basis of some important production system, you hve just screwed up because you upgraded software on an important production system.
And well, one of the issues with new softfork activation is that if not enough people (users and miners) upgrade to the newest Bitcoin software, the security of the new softfork rules are at risk.
Upgrading software of any kind is always a risk, and the more software you build on top of the software-being-upgraded, the greater you risk your tower of software collapsing while you change its foundations.
So if you have some complex Bitcoin-manipulating system with Bitcoin somewhere at the foundations, consider running two Bitcoin nodes:
  1. One is a "stable-version" Bitcoin node. Once it has synced, set it up to connect=x.x.x.x to the second node below (so that your ISP bandwidth is only spent on the second node). Use this node to run all your software: it's a stable version that you don't change for long periods of time. Enable txiindex, disable pruning, whatever your software needs.
  2. The other is an "always-up-to-date" Bitcoin Node. Keep its stoarge down with pruning (initially sync it off the "stable-version" node). You can't use blocksonly if your "stable-version" node needs to send transactions, but otherwise this "always-up-to-date" Bitcoin node can be kept as a low-resource node, so you can run both nodes in the same machine.
When a new Bitcoin version comes up, you just upgrade the "always-up-to-date" Bitcoin node. This protects you if a future softfork activates, you will only receive valid Bitcoin blocks and transactions. Since this node has nothing running on top of it, it is just a special peer of the "stable-version" node, any software incompatibilities with your system software do not exist.
Your "stable-version" Bitcoin node remains the same version until you are ready to actually upgrade this node and are prepared to rewrite most of the software you have running on top of it due to version compatibility problems.
When upgrading the "always-up-to-date", you can bring it down safely and then start it later. Your "stable-version" wil keep running, disconnected from the network, but otherwise still available for whatever queries. You do need some system to stop the "always-up-to-date" node if for any reason the "stable-version" goes down (otherwisee if the "always-up-to-date" advances its pruning window past what your "stable-version" has, the "stable-version" cannot sync afterwards), but if you are technically competent enough that you need to do this, you are technically competent enough to write such a trivial monitor program (EDIT: gmax notes you can adjust the pruning window by RPC commands to help with this as well).
This recommendation is from gmaxwell on IRC, by the way.
submitted by almkglor to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

[ Bitcoin ] Technical: Taproot: Why Activate?

Topic originally posted in Bitcoin by almkglor [link]
This is a follow-up on https://old.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/hqzp14/technical_the_path_to_taproot_activation/
Taproot! Everybody wants it!! But... you might ask yourself: sure, everybody else wants it, but why would I, sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, want it? Surely I can be better than everybody else because I swapped XXX fiat for Bitcoin unlike all those nocoiners?
And it is important for you to know the reasons why you, o sovereign Bitcoiner, would want Taproot activated. After all, your nodes (or the nodes your wallets use, which if you are SPV, you hopefully can pester to your wallet vendoimplementor about) need to be upgraded in order for Taproot activation to actually succeed instead of becoming a hot sticky mess.
First, let's consider some principles of Bitcoin.
I'm sure most of us here would agree that the above are very important principles of Bitcoin and that these are principles we would not be willing to remove. If anything, we would want those principles strengthened (especially the last one, financial privacy, which current Bitcoin is only sporadically strong with: you can get privacy, it just requires effort to do so).
So, how does Taproot affect those principles?

Taproot and Your /Coins

Most HODLers probably HODL their coins in singlesig addresses. Sadly, switching to Taproot would do very little for you (it gives a mild discount at spend time, at the cost of a mild increase in fee at receive time (paid by whoever sends to you, so if it's a self-send from a P2PKH or bech32 address, you pay for this); mostly a wash).
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash, so the Taproot output spends 12 bytes more; spending from a P2WPKH requires revealing a 32-byte public key later, which is not needed with Taproot, and Taproot signatures are about 9 bytes smaller than P2WPKH signatures, but the 32 bytes plus 9 bytes is divided by 4 because of the witness discount, so it saves about 11 bytes; mostly a wash, it increases blockweight by about 1 virtual byte, 4 weight for each Taproot-output-input, compared to P2WPKH-output-input).
However, as your HODLings grow in value, you might start wondering if multisignature k-of-n setups might be better for the security of your savings. And it is in multisignature that Taproot starts to give benefits!
Taproot switches to using Schnorr signing scheme. Schnorr makes key aggregation -- constructing a single public key from multiple public keys -- almost as trivial as adding numbers together. "Almost" because it involves some fairly advanced math instead of simple boring number adding, but hey when was the last time you added up your grocery list prices by hand huh?
With current P2SH and P2WSH multisignature schemes, if you have a 2-of-3 setup, then to spend, you need to provide two different signatures from two different public keys. With Taproot, you can create, using special moon math, a single public key that represents your 2-of-3 setup. Then you just put two of your devices together, have them communicate to each other (this can be done airgapped, in theory, by sending QR codes: the software to do this is not even being built yet, but that's because Taproot hasn't activated yet!), and they will make a single signature to authorize any spend from your 2-of-3 address. That's 73 witness bytes -- 18.25 virtual bytes -- of signatures you save!
And if you decide that your current setup with 1-of-1 P2PKH / P2WPKH addresses is just fine as-is: well, that's the whole point of a softfork: backwards-compatibility; you can receive from Taproot users just fine, and once your wallet is updated for Taproot-sending support, you can send to Taproot users just fine as well!
(P2WPKH and P2WSH -- SegWit v0 -- addresses start with bc1q; Taproot -- SegWit v1 --- addresses start with bc1p, in case you wanted to know the difference; in bech32 q is 0, p is 1)
Now how about HODLers who keep all, or some, of their coins on custodial services? Well, any custodial service worth its salt would be doing at least 2-of-3, or probably something even bigger, like 11-of-15. So your custodial service, if it switched to using Taproot internally, could save a lot more (imagine an 11-of-15 getting reduced from 11 signatures to just 1!), which --- we can only hope! --- should translate to lower fees and better customer service from your custodial service!
So I think we can say, very accurately, that the Bitcoin principle --- that YOU are in control of your money --- can only be helped by Taproot (if you are doing multisignature), and, because P2PKH and P2WPKH remain validly-usable addresses in a Taproot future, will not be harmed by Taproot. Its benefit to this principle might be small (it mostly only benefits multisignature users) but since it has no drawbacks with this (i.e. singlesig users can continue to use P2WPKH and P2PKH still) this is still a nice, tidy win!
(even singlesig users get a minor benefit, in that multisig users will now reduce their blockchain space footprint, so that fees can be kept low for everybody; so for example even if you have your single set of private keys engraved on titanium plates sealed in an airtight box stored in a safe buried in a desert protected by angry nomads riding giant sandworms because you're the frickin' Kwisatz Haderach, you still gain some benefit from Taproot)
And here's the important part: if P2PKH/P2WPKH is working perfectly fine with you and you decide to never use Taproot yourself, Taproot will not affect you detrimentally. First do no harm!

Taproot and Your Contracts

No one is an island, no one lives alone. Give and you shall receive. You know: by trading with other people, you can gain expertise in some obscure little necessity of the world (and greatly increase your productivity in that little field), and then trade the products of your expertise for necessities other people have created, all of you thereby gaining gains from trade.
So, contracts, which are basically enforceable agreements that facilitate trading with people who you do not personally know and therefore might not trust.
Let's start with a simple example. You want to buy some gewgaws from somebody. But you don't know them personally. The seller wants the money, you want their gewgaws, but because of the lack of trust (you don't know them!! what if they're scammers??) neither of you can benefit from gains from trade.
However, suppose both of you know of some entity that both of you trust. That entity can act as a trusted escrow. The entity provides you security: this enables the trade, allowing both of you to get gains from trade.
In Bitcoin-land, this can be implemented as a 2-of-3 multisignature. The three signatories in the multisgnature would be you, the gewgaw seller, and the escrow. You put the payment for the gewgaws into this 2-of-3 multisignature address.
Now, suppose it turns out neither of you are scammers (whaaaat!). You receive the gewgaws just fine and you're willing to pay up for them. Then you and the gewgaw seller just sign a transaction --- you and the gewgaw seller are 2, sufficient to trigger the 2-of-3 --- that spends from the 2-of-3 address to a singlesig the gewgaw seller wants (or whatever address the gewgaw seller wants).
But suppose some problem arises. The seller gave you gawgews instead of gewgaws. Or you decided to keep the gewgaws but not sign the transaction to release the funds to the seller. In either case, the escrow is notified, and if it can sign with you to refund the funds back to you (if the seller was a scammer) or it can sign with the seller to forward the funds to the seller (if you were a scammer).
Taproot helps with this: like mentioned above, it allows multisignature setups to produce only one signature, reducing blockchain space usage, and thus making contracts --- which require multiple people, by definition, you don't make contracts with yourself --- is made cheaper (which we hope enables more of these setups to happen for more gains from trade for everyone, also, moon and lambos).
(technology-wise, it's easier to make an n-of-n than a k-of-n, making a k-of-n would require a complex setup involving a long ritual with many communication rounds between the n participants, but an n-of-n can be done trivially with some moon math. You can, however, make what is effectively a 2-of-3 by using a three-branch SCRIPT: either 2-of-2 of you and seller, OR 2-of-2 of you and escrow, OR 2-of-2 of escrow and seller. Fortunately, Taproot adds a facility to embed a SCRIPT inside a public key, so you can have a 2-of-2 Taprooted address (between you and seller) with a SCRIPT branch that can instead be spent with 2-of-2 (you + escrow) OR 2-of-2 (seller + escrow), which implements the three-branched SCRIPT above. If neither of you are scammers (hopefully the common case) then you both sign using your keys and never have to contact the escrow, since you are just using the escrow public key without coordinating with them (because n-of-n is trivial but k-of-n requires setup with communication rounds), so in the "best case" where both of you are honest traders, you also get a privacy boost, in that the escrow never learns you have been trading on gewgaws, I mean ewww, gawgews are much better than gewgaws and therefore I now judge you for being a gewgaw enthusiast, you filthy gewgawer).

Taproot and Your Contracts, Part 2: Cryptographic Boogaloo

Now suppose you want to buy some data instead of things. For example, maybe you have some closed-source software in trial mode installed, and want to pay the developer for the full version. You want to pay for an activation code.
This can be done, today, by using an HTLC. The developer tells you the hash of the activation code. You pay to an HTLC, paying out to the developer if it reveals the preimage (the activation code), or refunding the money back to you after a pre-agreed timeout. If the developer claims the funds, it has to reveal the preimage, which is the activation code, and you can now activate your software. If the developer does not claim the funds by the timeout, you get refunded.
And you can do that, with HTLCs, today.
Of course, HTLCs do have problems:
Fortunately, with Schnorr (which is enabled by Taproot), we can now use the Scriptless Script constuction by Andrew Poelstra. This Scriptless Script allows a new construction, the PTLC or Pointlocked Timelocked Contract. Instead of hashes and preimages, just replace "hash" with "point" and "preimage" with "scalar".
Or as you might know them: "point" is really "public key" and "scalar" is really a "private key". What a PTLC does is that, given a particular public key, the pointlocked branch can be spent only if the spender reveals the private key of the given private key to you.
Another nice thing with PTLCs is that they are deniable. What appears onchain is just a single 2-of-2 signature between you and the developemanufacturer. It's like a magic trick. This signature has no special watermarks, it's a perfectly normal signature (the pledge). However, from this signature, plus some datta given to you by the developemanufacturer (known as the adaptor signature) you can derive the private key of a particular public key you both agree on (the turn). Anyone scraping the blockchain will just see signatures that look just like every other signature, and as long as nobody manages to hack you and get a copy of the adaptor signature or the private key, they cannot get the private key behind the public key (point) that the pointlocked branch needs (the prestige).
(Just to be clear, the public key you are getting the private key from, is distinct from the public key that the developemanufacturer will use for its funds. The activation key is different from the developer's onchain Bitcoin key, and it is the activation key whose private key you will be learning, not the developer's/manufacturer's onchain Bitcoin key).
So:
Taproot lets PTLCs exist onchain because they enable Schnorr, which is a requirement of PTLCs / Scriptless Script.
(technology-wise, take note that Scriptless Script works only for the "pointlocked" branch of the contract; you need normal Script, or a pre-signed nLockTimed transaction, for the "timelocked" branch. Since Taproot can embed a script, you can have the Taproot pubkey be a 2-of-2 to implement the Scriptless Script "pointlocked" branch, then have a hidden script that lets you recover the funds with an OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY after the timeout if the seller does not claim the funds.)

Quantum Quibbles!

Now if you were really paying attention, you might have noticed this parenthetical:
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash...)
So wait, Taproot uses raw 32-byte public keys, and not public key hashes? Isn't that more quantum-vulnerable??
Well, in theory yes. In practice, they probably are not.
It's not that hashes can be broken by quantum computes --- they're still not. Instead, you have to look at how you spend from a P2WPKH/P2PKH pay-to-public-key-hash.
When you spend from a P2PKH / P2WPKH, you have to reveal the public key. Then Bitcoin hashes it and checks if this matches with the public-key-hash, and only then actually validates the signature for that public key.
So an unconfirmed transaction, floating in the mempools of nodes globally, will show, in plain sight for everyone to see, your public key.
(public keys should be public, that's why they're called public keys, LOL)
And if quantum computers are fast enough to be of concern, then they are probably fast enough that, in the several minutes to several hours from broadcast to confirmation, they have already cracked the public key that is openly broadcast with your transaction. The owner of the quantum computer can now replace your unconfirmed transaction with one that pays the funds to itself. Even if you did not opt-in RBF, miners are still incentivized to support RBF on RBF-disabled transactions.
So the extra hash is not as significant a protection against quantum computers as you might think. Instead, the extra hash-and-compare needed is just extra validation effort.
Further, if you have ever, in the past, spent from the address, then there exists already a transaction indelibly stored on the blockchain, openly displaying the public key from which quantum computers can derive the private key. So those are still vulnerable to quantum computers.
For the most part, the cryptographers behind Taproot (and Bitcoin Core) are of the opinion that quantum computers capable of cracking Bitcoin pubkeys are unlikely to appear within a decade or two.
So:
For now, the homomorphic and linear properties of elliptic curve cryptography provide a lot of benefits --- particularly the linearity property is what enables Scriptless Script and simple multisignature (i.e. multisignatures that are just 1 signature onchain). So it might be a good idea to take advantage of them now while we are still fairly safe against quantum computers. It seems likely that quantum-safe signature schemes are nonlinear (thus losing these advantages).

Summary

I Wanna Be The Taprooter!

So, do you want to help activate Taproot? Here's what you, mister sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, can do!

But I Hate Taproot!!

That's fine!

Discussions About Taproot Activation

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https://coinlib.io/coin/TCT/TCT+Coin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/UCN/UChain#performance
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https://coinlib.io/coin/TMTG/The+Midas+Touch+Gold#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/USDC/USDC#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/META/Metadium#performance
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https://coinlib.io/coin/PTN/PalletOne#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/INVE/INVEToken#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/HUM/Humanscape#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/HQT/HyperQuant#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/AERGO/Aergo#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/USDS/Stronghold+USD#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/COVA/COVA#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/AUNIT/Aunite#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/ADC2/Android+Chain#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/ESBC/ESBC#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/PLA/Plair#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BTT/BitTorrent#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BTU/BTU+Protocol#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/LTO/LTO+Network#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/VOLLAVollar#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/FET/Fetch+AI#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/WDC/Wisdom+Chain#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BLOC/Blockcloud+Token#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/FOThe+Force+Protocol#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/OCEAN/Ocean+Protocol#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/CRE/Carry#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/AMP3/Synereo#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/WXT/Wirex+Token#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/ONE/Harmony#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/LUNA/Luna+(Terra)#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/FTT/FTX+Token#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/SOVE/Soverain#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BTCBitCurrency#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/SLSolarCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/CLINT/Clinton#performance
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https://coinlib.io/coin/DBIC/DubaiCoin#performance
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https://coinlib.io/coin/GOTX/GothicCoin#performance
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https://coinlib.io/coin/LTCLiteCreed#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/HODL/HOdlcoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/NANAS/BananaBits#performance
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https://coinlib.io/coin/NET/Nimiq+Exchange+Token#performance
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https://coinlib.io/coin/XMY/MyriadCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/FCN/FantomCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/DETH/DarkEther#performance
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https://coinlib.io/coin/CLUB/ClubCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/PCM/Procom#performance
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https://coinlib.io/coin/SPSpreadcoin#performance
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https://coinlib.io/coin/MC/Mass+Coin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/XCASH/Xcash#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/IFT/InvestFeed#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/MASS/Mass.Cloud#performance
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https://coinlib.io/coin/YMC/YamahaCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/NTRN/Neutron#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/NMNumerai#performance
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https://coinlib.io/coin/DBTC/DebitCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/JANE/JaneCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/NET/NetCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/CBX/Bullion#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BOOM/BOOM+Coin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/LENIN/LeninCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/SWING/SwingCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/GMC/Gridmaster#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/MBIT/Mbitbooks#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BOMB/BombCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/DGORE/DogeGoreCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/SCRT/SecretCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/HALLO/Halloween+Coin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BET/DAO.casino#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/WINE/WineCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/CYC/ConSpiracy+Coin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/LBTC/LiteBitcoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/DGDC/DarkGold#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/PRX/Printerium#performance
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https://coinlib.io/coin/LDOGE/LiteDoge#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/ION/Ionomy#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/DCRE/DeltaCredits#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/TUTurron#performance
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https://coinlib.io/coin/CRM/Cream#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/ICOB/Icobid#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/MYST/Mysterium#performance
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https://coinlib.io/coin/NEVA/NevaCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/INCP/InceptionCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BTCRY/BitCrystal#performance
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https://coinlib.io/coin/KRAK/Kraken#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/COX/CobraCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/EXIT/ExitCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/LUX/LUXCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/TRUMP/TrumpCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BRO/Bitradio#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/CLICK/Clickcoin#performance
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https://coinlib.io/coin/LSD/LightSpeedCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BTCS/Bitcoin+Scrypt#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/DRA/DraculaCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/HPC/HappyCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/NEU/NeuCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/SOCC/SocialCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/PLBT/Polybius#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/RBY/RubyCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/MG/Mind+Gene#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/RBIES/Rubies#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/ONX/Onix#performance
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https://coinlib.io/coin/CFC/CoffeeCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/QBC/Quebecoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/POST/PostCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/M1/SupplyShock#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/COB/Cobinhood#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/IXT/iXledger#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/KKrypton#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/RBT/Rimbit#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/SFE/SFE#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/GUP/Guppy#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/MUE/MonetaryUnit#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BEST/BestChain#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/DANK/DarkKush#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/CHESS/ChessCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/DOPE/DopeCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/SKB/SkullBuzz#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/MPRO/MediumProject#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/GIFT/GiftNet#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/COV/Covesting#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/TEC/TeCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/NUBIS/NubisCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/SP/Sex+Pistols#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/VRS/Veros#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BON/Bonpay#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/ANTI/Anti+Bitcoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/UBIQ/Ubiqoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/CJC/CryptoJournal#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/SIGT/Signatum#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/VOLT/BitVolt#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/SPX/Specie#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/OTX/Octanox#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/NUM/NumbersCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/DAS/DAS#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/KAYI/Kayı#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/TWIST/TwisterCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BSTY/GlobalBoost#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/VIP/VIP+Tokens#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/VOOT/VootCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/LUCKY/LuckyBlocks#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/ALTC/AltoCar#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/ETT/EncryptoTel#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/STO/Save+The+Ocean#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/PRE/Premium#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BAN/Babes+and+Nerds#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/XRL/Rialto.AI#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/YAC/YAcCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/SUPESuperCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/ZET/ZetaCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/XMG/Coin+Magi#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BOSS/BitBoss#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/YOC/YoCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/FGZ/Free+Game+Zone#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BITB/Bean+Cash#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/2GIVE/2GiveCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/CJ/CryptoJacks#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/CF/Californium#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/ZENI/Zennies#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/CRPS/CryptoPennies#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/SPKTGhost+Coin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/TPG/Troll+Payment#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/GB/GoldBlocks#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BXC/Bitcedi#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/LEPEN/LePenCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/TKN/TokenCard#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/ZNY/BitZeny#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/INPAY/InPay#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/SAND/BeachCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BIT16/16BitCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/UFO/UFO+Coin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/RUST/RustCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/TAM/TamaGucci#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/ELC/Elacoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/NEBU/Nebuchadnezzar#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/DOGETH/EtherDoge#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/VISIO/Visio#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BOST/BoostCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/ZEZero#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/NKA/IncaKoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/TIC/TrueInvestmentCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BCX/BattleCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/KICK/Kick+Token#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/MET/Memessenger#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/SLING/Sling+Coin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/EGC/EverGreenCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BIOB/BioBar#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/HVCO/High+Voltage+Coin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/MNC/MinCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/DNA/Encrypgen#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/CRX/ChronosCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/STS/STRESScoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/APC/AlpaCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/1337/Elite#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/DELTA/Agrello+Delta#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/SWT/Swarm+City+Token#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/PUPA/PupaCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/MOJO/Mojocoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/X2/X2#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/TIME/Chronobank#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/OXY/Oxycoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/MAPC/MapCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/VTY/Victoriouscoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/DCK/DickCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/DISK/Dark+Lisk#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/CASH/Cash+Poker+Pro#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/NUKE/NukeCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/DVC/DevCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/UIS/Unitus#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/CANN/CannabisCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/TAP/TappingCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/ENRG/EnergyCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/TAGThink+And+Get+Rich+Coin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/MXT/MartexCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/HBT/Hubii#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/QRL/Quantum+Resistant+Ledger#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/MOON/MoonCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/VERI/Veritaseum#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/POT/PotCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/ACID/AcidCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/MIS/MIScoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/INSANE/InsaneCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/START/StartCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/AVT/AventCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/PSB/PesoBit#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/ZCL/ZClassic#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/PLU/Pluton#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/GCC/GuccioneCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/XVE/The+Vegan+Initiative#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/ERC/EuropeCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/GCN/GCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/SLS/SaluS#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/FRE/FreeCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/CYT/Cryptokenz#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/N7/Number7#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/MILO/MiloCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/EQT/EquiTrader#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/RATIO/Ratio#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/LEA/LeaCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/MAX/MaxCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/XPD/PetroDollar#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/WGO/WavesGO#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/TIE/Ties+Network#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/UNI/Universe#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/GOAT/Goat#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/DUX/DuxCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/CDX/Cryptodex#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/HSP/Horse+Power#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/CXT/Coinonat#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/AMS/Amsterdam+Coin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/PTA/PentaCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/HIRE/HireMatch#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/CREA/CREA#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/XUC/Exchange+Union#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/PWPWR+Coin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/JOBS/JobsCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/CIN/CinderCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/TPAY/TrollPlay#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/CCC/CCCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/WMC/WMCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/ALN/AlienCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/WBB/Wild+Beast+Coin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/FONZ/FonzieCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/XPO/Opair#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/THC/The+HempCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/GBT/GameBetCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/XBC/Bitcoin+Plus#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BERN/BERNcash#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/GREXIT/GrexitCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/DOV/DonationCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/JPC/JackPotCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/MTLM3/Metal+Music+v3#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/TAAS/Token+as+a+Service#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/LANA/LanaCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/STCN/Stakecoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/IFC/Infinite+Coin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/MRV/Macroverse#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/RISE/Rise#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/PSI/PSIcoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/PBT/Primalbase#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/XPM/PrimeCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/LOG/Wood+Coin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/DIM/DIMCOIN#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/MWC/MultiWallet+Coin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/B3/B3+Coin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/EDRC/EDRCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/CLCopperLark#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/NBT/NuBits#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/KED/Klingon+Empire+Darsek#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/EON/Exscudo#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/CIRC/CryptoCircuits#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/ECOB/EcoBit#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/DYN/Dynamic#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/ERErrorCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/ASN/Ascension+Coin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/ACP/Anarchists+Prime#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/RUBIT/Rublebit#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/MMXVI/MMXVI#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/SPA/SpainCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/VRM/Verium#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BOS/BOScoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/NIC/NewInvestCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/VRC/VeriCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BIOS/BiosCrypto#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BOLI/BolivarCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/SAK/SharkCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/AXIOM/Axiom+Coin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/TEAM/TeamUP#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/MINEX/Minex#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/SCASH/SpaceCash#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/RADI/RadicalCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/HAMS/HamsterCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/SEN/Sentaro#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/MNE/Minereum#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/KGC/KrugerCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/PAC/PACGlobal#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BBT/BrickBlock#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/KUBO/KubosCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/SPACE/SpaceCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/ZRC/ZrCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/PRC/ProsperCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/CORAL/CoralPay#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/LAT/Latium#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BENJI/BenjiRolls#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BAM/BAM#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/INSN/Insane+Coin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/GRE/GreenCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/NYC/NewYorkCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BITZ/Bitz+Coin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/PTC/PesetaCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/RAIN/Condensate#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/SKIN/Skincoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/RC/Russiacoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/ALEX/Alexandrite#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BXT/BitTokens#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/GIZ/GIZMOcoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/YOVI/YobitVirtualCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/WBTC/wBTC#performance
https://coinlib.io/coinUcoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/ZNT/OpenZen#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/XCT/C-Bits#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BITS/BitstarCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/TGC/TigerCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/PLANET/PlanetCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/SCN/Swiscoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/LAZ/Lazarus#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/CRNK/CrankCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/ICASH/ICASH#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/HVN/Hive#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/REE/ReeCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/MOIN/MoinCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/GP/GoldPieces#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/GSX/GlowShares#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BITS/BitSwift#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/UMC/Unity+Matrix+Commons#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/2015/2015+coin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/ARCO/AquariusCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/APT/Aptcoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/PAYP/PayPeer#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/GOT/Giotto+Coin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/FLO/FlorinCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/FJC/FujiCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/PINK/PinkCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/LOOK/LookCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/FIRE/FireCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BBBoolberry#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/CNC/ChinaCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/CYP/CypherPunkCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/HYP/Hyperstake#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/XBY/XtraBYtes#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/PKB/ParkByte#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/ZET2/Zeta2Coin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/CTIC/Coinmatic#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/CRYPT/CryptCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/XCP/CounterParty#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/CCX/CoolDarkCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/PING/CryptoPing#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/DEM/eMark#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/AGS/Aegis#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/FTC/FeatherCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/NPX/Napoleon+X#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/UNIFY/Unify#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/SXC/SexCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BNB/Boats+and+Bitches#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/GDC/GrandCoin#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/BITOK/BitOKX#performance
https://coinlib.io/coin/PNC/PlatiniumCoin#performance
submitted by Quippykisset to peaceCorpsCoding [link] [comments]

Random idea: USL, but for Bitcoin addresses

This is my rough idea for a Bitcoin change that would allow for a bit more fraud protection. I might write up a BIP later if I get around to actually nailing it down.
For those unaware, the Universal Scammer List (USL) is a page dedicated to keeping track of the usernames of scammers on Reddit. Basically, if you want to conduct a transaction with someone on Reddit, you should first check if they're listed as a known scammer.
My idea is to do the same with Bitcoin addresses. A decentralised database of blacklisted addresses would be kept by anyone running a full node. Any funds in the blacklisted addresses are deemed worthless.
For example, address A gets listed for hacking into an exchange and stealing coins. Any funds held by address A would be deemed worthless. If they send 10 BTC to address B, then the network would remember that address B has 10 BTC that is worthless. If address B originally had 5 BTC and was sent 10 BTC by address A, they would have 15 BTC, but the bottom 10 BTC would be deemed worthless. If address B sends 2 BTC to address C, then C receives 2 good BTC and B is left with 3 good BTC and 10 blacklisted BTC, but if B sends another 4 BTC to address D, then D would receive 3 good BTC and 1 worthless BTC, and the network would now remember that D has 1 worthless Bitcoin. Therefore, before accepting the transaction as payment for something, they would have to check to make sure that they are not receiving worthless blacklisted coins.
Miners could also choose to selectively refuse to mine transactions involving blacklisted BTC because any miners' fees collected from such a transaction would be blacklisted as well. This could mean someone trying to send blacklisted BTC is essentially broadcasting a transaction with a 0 sat/byte fee rate, meaning their transaction would probably be stuck in the Mempool for quite a long time, if not forever if miners refuse to mine it.
Whenever someone wants an address blacklisted, they would announce it to the public via any mechanism, and anyone keeping a full node can decide whether or not to blacklist the address. Therefore, anyone who disagrees with the blacklisting is free to accept the coins at face value or mine them into a block. If you don't agree with the evidence presented, then you are free to not blacklist them. Therefore, contested coins would only be accepted as valid payment by those who think the coins should have never been blacklisted in the first place.
This system would not be meant to help every single person who gets scammed with Bitcoin, but it would discourage large scale wholesale Bitcoin fraud. It would be ridiculous to expect all full-node maintainers to become arbitrators of all disputes, and consensus would never be reached on half of the transactions being processed. Node operators would also ideally not have to remember as many transactions involving blacklisted coins because miners would refuse to mine them (transaction fees collected would be in blacklisted coins), meaning they'd be stuck in the Mempool for long periods of time, reducing the speed at which they can be moved around, if at all. So the ledger of blacklisted coins would not have to be updated extremely often. Blacklisting would only happen for really big scams involving tens or hundreds of Bitcoin, like if an exchange got hacked or something.
Scams have effectively less than an hour to be discovered. 10 minutes for the deposit into the address in question, and more, depending on how many block confirmations something must have before others will accept it for transactions sell goods for it. Therefore, if a merchant requires 3 block confirmations, then they would give 40 minutes for the address to be blacklisted. If the buyer's address is blacklisted before the transaction to the merchant gets 3 block confirmations, the merchant would realise they've been sent blacklisted coins and not ship the goods. 40 minutes isn't a lot of time, but it's better than nothing.
This has the additional effect of encouraging people to wait for more confirmations. For low-value transactions, the risk is nominal because even if you were sent worthless coins, you're probably only out the price of a coffee. But if you're selling a house, you might want to wait for even more block confirmations.
Money sent around too much could be deemed "too late to blacklist" if there is a risk that it would result in too many innocent people's Bitcoin getting blacklisted.
This system doesn't refund the Bitcoin of victims, so poor security practices would still be punished by a loss of coins, but criminals would not be rewarded for their efforts either. The lack of reward (or the risk of a lack of reward) would hopefully make people less inclined to try and pull off the type of big scams that are giving Bitcoin a bad reputation!
submitted by NateNate60 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

The Privacy Coin Guide Part 1

As interest picks up in crypto again, I want to share this post I made on privacy coins again to just give the basics of their evolution. This is only part 1, and parts 2 and 3 are not available in this format, but this part is informative and basic.
If you’re looking for a quick and easy way to assess what the best privacy coin in the current space is, which has the best features, or which is most likely to give high returns, then this is not that guide. My goal is to give you the power to make your own decisions, to clearly state my biases, and educate. I really wanted to understand this niche of the crypto-space due to my background and current loyalties[1], and grasp the nuances of the features, origins and timelines of technologies used in privacy coins, while not being anything close to a developer myself. This is going to be a 3-part series, starting with an overview and basic review of the technology, then looking at its implications, and ending with why I like a specific project. It might be mildly interesting or delightfully educational. Cryptocurrencies are young and existing privacy coins are deploying technology that is a work in progress. This series assumes a basic understanding of how blockchains work, specifically as used in cryptocurrencies. If you don’t have that understanding, might I suggest that you get it? [2],[3],[4] Because cryptocurrencies have a long way to go before reaching their end-game: when the world relies on the technology without understanding it. So, shall we do a deep dive into the privacy coin space?

FIRST THERE WAS BITCOIN

Cryptocurrencies allow you to tokenize value and track its exchange between hands over time, with transaction information verified by a distributed network of users. The most famous version of a cryptocurrency in use is Bitcoin, defined as peer-to-peer electronic cash. [5] Posted anonymously in 2008, the whitepaper seemed to be in direct response to the global financial meltdown and public distrust of the conventional banking and financing systems. Although cryptographic techniques are used in Bitcoin to ensure that (i) only the owner of a specific wallet has the authority to spend funds from that wallet, (ii) the public address is linked but cannot be traced by a third party to the private address (iii) the information is stored via cryptographic hashing in a merkle tree structure to ensure data integrity, the actual transaction information is publicly visible on the blockchain and can be traced back to the individual through chain analysis.[6] This has raised fears of possible financial censorship or the metaphorical tainting of money due to its origination point, as demonstrated in the Silk Road marketplace disaster.[7] This can happen because fiat money is usually exchanged for cryptocurrency at some point, as crypto-enthusiasts are born in the real world and inevitably cash out. There are already chain analysis firms and software that are increasingly efficient at tracking transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.[8] This lack of privacy is one of the limitations of Bitcoin that has resulted in the creation of altcoins that experiment with the different features a cryptocurrency can have. Privacy coins are figuring out how to introduce privacy in addition to the payment network. The goal is to make the cryptocurrency fungible, each unit able to be exchanged for equal value without knowledge of its transaction history – like cash, while being publicly verifiable on a decentralized network. In other words, anyone can add the math up without being able to see the full details. Some privacy solutions and protocols have popped up as a result:

CRYPTONOTE – RING SIGNATURES AND STEALTH ADDRESSES

Used in: Monero and Particl as its successor RING-CT, Bytecoin
In December 2012, CryptoNote introduced the use of ring signatures and stealth addresses (along with other notable features such as its own codebase) to improve cryptocurrency privacy.[9] An updated CryptoNote version 2 came in October 2013 [10](though there is some dispute over this timeline [11]), also authored under the name Nicolas van Saberhagen. Ring signatures hide sender information by having the sender sign a transaction using a signature that could belong to multiple users. This makes a transaction untraceable. Stealth addresses allow a receiver to give a single address which generates a different public address for funds to be received at each time funds are sent to it. That makes a transaction unlinkable. In terms of privacy, CryptoNote gave us a protocol for untraceable and unlinkable transactions. The first implementation of CryptoNote technology was Bytecoin in March 2014 (timeline disputed [12]), which spawned many children (forks) in subsequent years, a notable example being Monero, based on CryptoNote v2 in April 2014.
RING SIGNATURES and STEALTH ADDRESSES

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
-Does not hide transaction information if not combined with another protocol.

COINJOIN

Used in: Dash
Bitcoin developer Gregory Maxwell proposed a set of solutions to bring privacy to Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, the first being CoinJoin (January 28 – Aug 22, 2013).[13],[14] CoinJoin (sometimes called CoinSwap) allows multiple users to combine their transactions into a single transaction, by receiving inputs from multiple users, and then sending their outputs to the multiple users, irrespective of who in the group the inputs came from. So, the receiver will get whatever output amount they were supposed to, but it cannot be directly traced to its origination input. Similar proposals include Coinshuffle in 2014 and Tumblebit in 2016, building on CoinJoin but not terribly popular [15],[16]. They fixed the need for a trusted third party to ‘mix’ the transactions. There are CoinJoin implementations that are being actively worked on but are not the most popular privacy solutions of today. A notable coin that uses CoinJoin technology is Dash, launched in January 2014, with masternodes in place of a trusted party.
COINJOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Easy to implement on any cryptocurrency
– Lightweight
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Mature technology

CONS

– Least anonymous privacy solution. Transaction amounts can be calculated
– Even without third-party mixer, depends on wealth centralization of masternodes

ZEROCOIN

Used in: Zcoin, PIVX
In May 2013, the Zerocoin protocol was introduced by John Hopkins University professor Matthew D. Green and his graduate students Ian Miers and Christina Garman.[17] In response to the need for use of a third party to do CoinJoin, the Zerocoin proposal allowed for a coin to be destroyed and remade in order to erase its history whenever it is spent. Zero-knowledge cryptography and zero-knowledge proofs are used to prove that the new coins for spending are being appropriately made. A zero-knowledge proof allows one party to prove to another that they know specific information, without revealing any information about it, other than the fact that they know it. Zerocoin was not accepted by the Bitcoin community as an implementation to be added to Bitcoin, so a new cryptocurrency had to be formed. Zcoin was the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocoin protocol in 2016. [18]
ZEROCOIN

PROS

– Provides sender and receiver privacy
– Supply can be audited
– Relatively mature technology
– Does not require a third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup (May not be required with Sigma protocol)
– Large proof sizes (not lightweight)
– Does not provide full privacy for transaction amounts

ZEROCASH

Used in: Zcash, Horizen, Komodo, Zclassic, Bitcoin Private
In May 2014, the current successor to the Zerocoin protocol, Zerocash, was created, also by Matthew Green and others (Eli Ben-Sasson, Alessandro Chiesa, Christina Garman, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Eran Tromer, Madars Virza).[19] It improved upon the Zerocoin concept by taking advantage of zero-knowledge proofs called zk-snarks (zero knowledge succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge). Unlike Zerocoin, which hid coin origins and payment history, Zerocash was faster, with smaller transaction sizes, and hides transaction information on the sender, receiver and amount. Zcash is the first cryptocurrency to implement the Zerocash protocol in 2016. [20]
ZEROCASH

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Sender, receiver and amount hidden.
– Privacy can be default?
– Fast due to small proof sizes.
– Payment amount can be optionally disclosed for auditing
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Requires trusted setup. (May be improved with zt-starks technology)
– Supply cannot be audited. And coins can potentially be forged without proper implementation.
– Private transactions computationally intensive (improved with Sapling upgrade)

CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

Used in: Monero and Particl with Ring Signatures as RING-CT
The next proposal from Maxwell was that of confidential transactions, proposed in June 2015 as part of the Sidechain Elements project from Blockstream, where Maxwell was Chief Technical Officer.[21],[22] It proposed to hide the transaction amount and asset type (e.g. deposits, currencies, shares), so that only the sender and receiver are aware of the amount, unless they choose to make the amount public. It uses homomorphic encryption[23] to encrypt the inputs and outputs by using blinding factors and a kind of ring signature in a commitment scheme, so the amount can be ‘committed’ to, without the amount actually being known. I’m terribly sorry if you now have the urge to go and research exactly what that means. The takeaway is that the transaction amount can be hidden from outsiders while being verifiable.
CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Only provides transaction amount privacy when used alone

RING-CT

Used in: Monero, Particl
Then came Ring Confidential transactions, proposed by Shen-Noether of Monero Research Labs in October 2015.[24] RingCT combines the use of ring signatures for hiding sender information, with the use of confidential transactions (which also uses ring signatures) for hiding amounts. The proposal described a new type of ring signature, A Multi-layered Linkable Spontaneous Anonymous Group signature which “allows for hidden amounts, origins and destinations of transactions with reasonable efficiency and verifiable, trustless coin generation”.[25] RingCT was implemented in Monero in January 2017 and made mandatory after September 2017.
RING -CONFIDENTIAL TRANSACTIONS

PROS

– Provides full anonymity. Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy can be default
– Mature technology
– Greater scalability with bulletproofs
– Does not require any third-party

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume

MIMBLEWIMBLE

Used in: Grin
Mimblewimble was proposed in July 2016 by pseudonymous contributor Tom Elvis Jedusorand further developed in October 2016 by Andrew Poelstra.[26],[27] Mimblewimble is a “privacy and fungibility focused cryptocoin transaction structure proposal”.[28] The key words are transaction structure proposal, so the way the blockchain is built is different, in order to accommodate privacy and fungibility features. Mimblewimble uses the concept of Confidential transactions to keep amounts hidden, looks at private keys and transaction information to prove ownership of funds rather than using addresses, and bundles transactions together instead of listing them separately on the blockchain. It also introduces a novel method of pruning the blockchain. Grin is a cryptocurrency in development that is applying Mimblewimble. Mimblewimble is early in development and you can understand it more here [29].
MIMBLEWIMBLE

PROS

– Hides transaction amounts and receiver privacy
– Privacy is on by default
– Lightweight
– No public addresses?

CONS

– Privacy not very effective without high volume
– Sender and receiver must both be online
– Relatively new technology

ZEXE

Fresh off the minds of brilliant cryptographers (Sean Bowe, Alessandro Chiesa, Matthew Green, Ian Miers, Pratyush Mishra, Howard Wu), in October 2018 Zexe proposed a new cryptographic primitive called ‘decentralized private computation.[30] It allows users of a decentralized ledger to “execute offline computations that result in transactions”[31], but also keeps transaction amounts hidden and allows transaction validation to happen at any time regardless of computations being done online. This can have far reaching implications for privacy coins in the future. Consider cases where transactions need to be automatic and private, without both parties being present.

NETWORK PRIVACY

Privacy technologies that look at network privacy as nodes communicate with each other on the network are important considerations, rather than just looking at privacy on the blockchain itself. Anonymous layers encrypt and/or reroute data as it moves among peers, so it is not obvious who they originate from on the network. They are used to protect against surveillance or censorship from ISPs and governments. The Invisible Internet Project (I2P) is an anonymous network layer that uses end to end encryption for peers on a network to communicate with each other.[32] Its history dates back to 2003. Kovri is a Monero created implementation of I2P.[33] The Onion Router (Tor) is another anonymity layer [34]) that Verge is a privacy cryptocurrency that uses. But its historical link to the US government may be is concerning to some[35]. Dandelion transaction relay is also an upcoming Bitcoin improvement proposal (BIP) that scrambles IP data that will provide network privacy for Bitcoin as transaction and other information is transmitted.[36],[37],[38]

UPCOMING

Monero completed bulletproofs protocol updates that reduce RINGCT transaction sizes and thus transaction fee costs. (Bulletproofs are a replacement for range proofs used in confidential transactions that aid in encrypting inputs and outputs by making sure they add to zero).
Sigma Protocol – being actively researched by Zcoin team as of 2018 to replace Zerocoin protocol so that a trusted setup is not required.[39] There is a possible replacement for zk-snarks, called zk-starks, another form of zero-knowledge proof technology, that may make a trusted set-up unnecessary for zero-knowledege proof coins.[40]

PART 1 CONCLUSION OF THE PRIVACY COIN GUIDE ON THE TECHNOLOGY BEHIND PRIVACY COINS

Although Bitcoin is still a groundbreaking technology that gives us a trust-less transaction system, it has failed to live up to its expectations of privacy. Over time, new privacy technologies have arrived and are arriving with innovative and exciting solutions for Bitcoin’s lack of fungibility. It is important to note that these technologies are built on prior research and application, but we are considering their use in cryptocurrencies. Protocols are proposed based on cryptographic concepts that show how they would work, and then developers actually implement them. Please note that I did not include the possibility of improper implementation as a disadvantage, and the advantages assume that the technical development is well done. A very important point is that coins can also adapt new privacy technologies as their merits become obvious, even as they start with a specific privacy protocol. Furthermore, I am, unfortunately, positive that this is not an exhaustive overview and I am only covering publicized solutions. Next, we’ll talk more about the pros and cons and give an idea of how the coins can be compared.

There's a video version that can be watched, and you can find out how to get the second two parts if you want on my website (video link on the page): https://cryptoramble.com/guide-on-privacy-coins/
submitted by CryptoRamble to ethereum [link] [comments]

260 TIP. Bitcoin Math & Value with Plan B - YouTube Bitcoin is Store of Value and Divisible Currency (Here is Why) My take on Micro Bitcoin Value Why is Bitcoin Increasing in Value? BULL RUN! Bitcoin Breakout! Where does Bitcoin get its value?

Bitcoin is the most important virtual currency in the market. It is used by many investors, companies and ... (BIPs) that aim to improve Bitcoin’s capabilities to preserve user’s privacy. But which are those changes that developers may implement? Confidential Transactions ... the value of the transactions will be hidden and users will enjoy ... What is Bitcoin? Bitcoin is a digital form of cash that was invented in 2009 by a person (or group of people) called Satoshi Nakamoto.His stated goal was to create “a new electronic cash system” that was “completely decentralized with no server or central authority.” This page describes a BIP (Bitcoin Improvement Proposal). Please see BIP 2 for more information about BIPs and creating them. Please do not just create a wiki page. ... but only uses a different purpose value to indicate the different transaction serialization method. A Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP) is a standard for proposing changes to the Bitcoin protocol, or in some cases a source for information for the Bitcoin community. Additionally, some BIPs are proposed changes to the BIP process itself. Notable changes this week in Bitcoin Core, C-Lightning, Eclair, LND, Rust-Lightning, libsecp256k1, Hardware Wallet Interface (HWI), Bitcoin Improvement Proposals (BIPs), and Lightning BOLTs. Bitcoin Core #19898 changes the “unexpected version” warnings in the debug log to be printed only when the validation log category is set, rather than ...

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260 TIP. Bitcoin Math & Value with Plan B - YouTube

Free Bitcoin Mining with Bitcoin Values 1BTC Per Week Speed (TH/s) - Duration: 3:02. How To Make Money Online For Free 3,395 views Tim Draper predicts the price of bitcoin after the halving! - Duration: 49:17. Crypto Finder 267,379 views. 49:17. RandomCoin Mining Show LIVE! ⛏ - MicroBitcoin (MBC) - DMD-GR - Duration: 30:51. Download Stig & Preston's 1 page checklist for finding great stock picks: http://buffettsbooks.com/checklist Subscribe to The Investors Podcast on iTunes: ht... Thank you for watching! If you would like to request a video or topic to be made, leave a comment in the comment section below and I will try to cover it! Please subscribe to the channel if you ... Ethereum 2.0 News, ETH Price Prediction & ETH Airdrop with Vitalik Buterin Ethereum Foundation 이더 리움 재단 ETH 1,979 watching Live now

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